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Saturday, September 12, 2015

Emperor Ashoka Maurya Killed 99 Brothers to Become King - Fact or Myth ? And some other questions - A Debate | HISTORY of Bindusara, Dharma, Ashoka - 3

Hi all,

I am back with a new post. The topic this time is quite different from the usual debate about Asoka the Great. This post aims to critically examine the veracity of the information contained in ancient texts about Asoka, including Buddhist, Tibetan and Sanskrit texts. According to these texts, Asoka slew 99 of his brothers to occupy the throne of Magadha. This post analyses the circumstances in which Asoka ascended the throne of Magadha and whether he was truly guilty of fratricide on a mass scale.

This post also aims to answer various questions like:-

1. Did Asoka kill Susima? If yes, then why and how?
2. Was Asoka extremely ruthless and highly ambitious in his early youth?
3. Who did Bindusara want to succeed him to the throne - Asoka or Susima?
4. Who was Rani Dharma? Was she a commoner or a royal princess?
5. How did Bindusara die ?

I wrote in an earlier post about the family background of Asoka:- 

" The life history of this monarch is replete with countless incidents, many of which are sourced from the Buddhist legends / texts. Often, while reading about this monarch, we come across incidents, which oscillate between fact and fiction, establishing the veracity of which has proved to be a Herculean task even for the best historians. So, while discussing him, we will be debating the information obtained from his edicts, which are considered as facts, along with that obtained from Buddhist / Jain legends from various countries, viz., Thailand, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, India (that time called AryaVrata/Jambudwipa - present-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan), Japan, China, etc. "

Here is the link to that post:
Emperor Asoka - An Introduction to Him and His Family

Now let's put this theory to the test.
Asokan Pillar at Vaishali


As in the case of great characters like King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table, the good King Alfred or King St. Louis of France, a mass of tradition has gathered round the name of Asoka too. Myths and legends have freely grown round it, and it would have been very difficult to delineate his true history were it not for the fact that he left behind for posterity personal messages to his people, written on rocky surfaces or exquisitely finished and polished pillars of stone.

In these sermons on stone, we find his true self revealed and expressed, his philosophy of life, his conception of an emperor's duties and responsibilities, and the extent to which he lived to realise the high ideals and principles he professed and preached.

This kind of evidence, which is not only a contemporary but a personal record too, is unique in Indian history, and, whether suggested by indigenous or foreign precedents, it is fortunate we have it for one of our greatest men in a series of thirty-five inscriptions published on rock or pillar, of which some are located at the extremities of his empire.

Before we discover what Asoka wrote in his edicts about his brothers, let us take a look at the Buddhist texts that have made the idea of a ruthless and highly ambitious Asoka so popular in the public psyche.

The Buddhist Traditions...

As mentioned, this post examines the widely-held notion that Asoka slew 99 of his brothers to ascend the throne of Magadh. 

The various traditions, however, differ about this point. We will take a look at the relevant content from some accounts before we reach any conclusion. Scans have been included at appropriate places. Before proceeding, let us take a look at the sources used in this post.

Sources Used

Scans from the Mahavamsa and the Dipavamsa may appear to be Sanskrit, but they are actually written in the Pali language using the English script. These are among the oldest historical records of Sri Lanka. They are the source of many accounts of ancient history of Sri Lanka and India. Their importance lies not only in being sources of history and legend, but also in being important early works in Buddhist and Pali literature. The author(s) of these works is(are) not known.

The scans for Tibetan-Buddhist legends are provided in German. The text containing these legends is named - rGya-gal-chos-byun. It was written by a Buddhist monk, Taranath, in 1608. Due to the difficult-to-pronounce name of this text, it is simply called 'The Tibetan Legend'. This text contains mystic stuff of exceptional quality and the best of Indologists find it tough to translate it. We are therefore grateful to the efforts put in by the German linguist 1a who translated the text in 1869. In the same year, the Russian translation 1b was also published. There is a Japanese translation also 1c. But the German translation is the one, which is widely used. Hence this post also relies upon the German translation. Readers who understand German will find it easier to understand this account.

Scans from Asokavadana have also been included here. This is an Indian text, written in Sanskrit. It contains both legends as well as historical narratives. It dates back to the 2nd century AD. Oral traditions of Asokavadana are said to belong to the 2nd century BC.1d

The Divyavadana is a Sanskrit anthology of Buddhist tales, dated to 2nd century AD. The stories themselves are quite ancient and may be among the first Buddhist texts ever committed to writing. A predominant theme is the vast merit accrued from making offerings to enlightened beings or at stupas and other holy sites related to the Buddha.

The Mahavamsatika is another source from Sri Lanka. It was compiled in the 10th century AD. It is known as a commentary of the Mahavamsa. It gives an interesting account of Asoka. This text has been uploaded at the end of the post with Sanskrit scans.

The Bodhivamsa is also a Sri Lankan text in Pali language, which quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources. It has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known. It is considered important while comparing various versions. 

Extent of Asoka's Empire giving the deatils of his edicts and important areas of his times

Account from the Mahavamsa 

The Mahavamsa states that Asoka was responsible for the death of his eldest brother 2a. It also mentions that he killed 99 other brothers 2b. According to this account, the only brother whom Asoka left alive was his own younger brother 2c (the second son of Dharma/Shubhadrangi - Vitasoka / Vigatasoka , also identified by some scholars as Tissa/Tisya).

The Mahavamsa says that when Bindusara became ill, Asoka came from Ujjaini to Patliputra. Asoka was stationed as a Governor at Ujjaini. He took Patliputra under his possession after slaying his eldest brother.

The Mahavamsa says that among the 101 glorious sons of Bindusara, Asoka stood above all in valor, splendour, might and exceptional powers/abilities. He slew 99 brothers born of different mothers & became the sovereign of Jambudwipa.

Account from the Dipavamsa

The Dipavamsa also mentions that Asoka killed 99 of his brothers 3. But it does not mention the execution of his elder brother, Susima.

The Dipavamsa says that when Asoka's son, Mahinda, was 10 years old, Asoka got his brothers killed*. Then he ruled over Jambudwipa for 4 years. When Mahinda was 14 years old, Asoka got himself coronated.

* - I noticed a discrepancy here. According to some scholars, the account mentions that Asoka spared the life of 1 of his 100 brothers. But after reading the text, it is clear that the text actually says - Asoka left NOT 1 of 100. It means that he left none of his brothers alive.

Account from the Tibetan Legend - ' rGya-gal-chos-byun '

The Tibetan legend is quite different from and more interesting than the Buddhist accounts mentioned earlier. 

It mentions that Asoka killed 6 of his (step)brothers 4a , and that all these 6 princes were born to the same wife of his father 4b . It further states that Asoka received the city of Patliputra as a reward for suppressing revolts in Nepal and the city of Khasa * 4c. (The king was pleased with Asoka for suppressing the revolts. He promised Asoka that he could have anything he asked for. Asoka asked for the city of Patliputra because he was 'scared' of his (6) brothers and he wanted to live a life of luxury. 4d

* - Himalayan people, include the modern Khakkas of Kashmir.

After the death of his father, Asoka began to rule from Pataliputra with the help of his father's ministers. But, later he fell out with his 6 brothers and fought with them for many years until they were all killed. 4e

Interestingly, the name of Asoka'a father in this account is mentioned as Nehmita 4f , and not Bindusara. I could not find the name of Asoka's mother in this text. She is simply mentioned as the daughter of a merchant 4g, similar to the description in Asokavadana.

The Tibetan Legend ' rGya-gal-chos-byun ' says that due to a clash of opinion with his elder brothers, Asoka  fought with them for several years. At last, he killed his six brothers along with the 500 ministers. He attacked many other cities and brought under his rule the entire territory from the Himalayas in the north to the Vindhyas in the south.

Account from the Asokavadana

The Asokavadana states that Asoka was responsible for the death of his elder brother, Susima. It mentions that Asoka got his eldest brother Susima eliminated

The story about birth of Asoka and the prediction according to which he was to be a chakravartin ruler has already been posted on the blog.
Link : The HISTORY of Bindusara, Dharma and Asoka
Further details are present below.

Here are the relevant portions from the Asokavadana along with their English translation.


Now it happened that the city of Takshila rebelled against King Bindusara. He, therefore, sent Asoka there, saying : "Go, son, lay siege to the city of Takshila." He sent with him a fourfold army [consisting of cavalry, elephants, chariots, and infantry], but he denied it any arms. As Asoka was aboul  to leave Patliputra, his servants informed him of this: "Prince, we don't have any weapons of war; how and with what shall we do battle?"

Asoka declared: "If my merit is such that I am to become king, may weapons of war appear before me!" 

And as soon as he had spoken these words, the earth opened up and deities brought forth weapons. Before long, he was on his way to Takshila with his fourfold army of troops.
When the citizens of Takshila heard that Asoka was coming, they bedecked the road for two and a half yojanas, and with their vases full of offerings, went out to welcome him.

"We did not want to rebel against the prince," they explained upon greeting him, "nor even against King Bindusara; but evil ministers came and oppressed us." And with great hospitality, they escorted him into the city of Takshila.


Scan from the Asokavadana: Bindusara sends Asoka to suppress a revolt in Takshila without giving him any arms. However Asoka is gifted divine arms and when he reaches the place, the people greet him with gifts of submission and inform him that they had only revolted against the evil ministers.
Sometime later, Asoka was welcomed in a similar fashion in the kingdom of the Khasas * 5 . Two great warriors entered his service at this place; he provided for their livelihood, and they, in return, marched ahead of him, cutting a path through the mountains. Everywhere they went, the gods proclaimed; "Asoka is to become a Chakravartin ruler over one of the four continents; no one is to oppose him!" And eventually the whole earth, as far as the ocean, submitted to his rule.

* - Tibetan legend mentions the city of Khasa. But, the Sanskrit text of Ashokavadana mentions Khasas. 

Now, one day, when Prince Susima happened to be returning to Patliputra from the royal park, he met King Bindusara's prime minister who was just leaving the city. The prime minister was bald and Prince Susima slapped him on the head in jest.

"Today, he slaps me with his hand;" the minister reflected, "when he becomes king, he'll let fall his sword (on me) ! I had better take action now to insure that he does not inherit the throne."

He therefore sought to alienate the 500 ministers of the kingdom from Susima, saying to them: "It has been predicted that Asoka will become a chakravartin ruler over one of the four continents. When the time comes, let us place him on the throne!"

Shortly thereafter, Takshila again rose in rebellion. This time, the king sent Prince Susima to quell the uprising; he, however, was not successful.

Feeling incapable of quelling the rebellion, King Bindusara became very ill. 


Scan from the Asokavadana: Asoka wins over Khasas and 2 great warriors enter his service. Susima jests with a minister who feels offended and turns all the other ministers against Susima. Takshila revolts again. Prince Susima is unable to quell it. Feeling incapable, Bindusara falls ill.  

He {Bindusara}, therefore, recalled Susima to Patliputra, intending to install him as his successor, and ordered Asoka to be sent to Takshila in his stead. The ministers, however, [thwarted his plan]; they smeared Prince Asoka's body with turmeric, boiled some red lac in a lohapatra*, and filled bowls with the red liquid to make it seem that Asoka was spitting blood. They stated, "Prince Asoka has fallen ill, [he cannot go to Takshila]."

* - copper/iron bowl used as a boiling pot

Bindusara was on his deathbed and about to breathe his last. The ministers, therefore, brought Asoka to him, adorned with all his ornaments. "Consecrate him as king for now," they urged, "we will install Susima on the throne later when he gets back." This, however, only made the king furious.

Asoka, therefore, declared: " If the throne is rightfully mine, let the gods crown me with the royal diadem!" And instantly the gods did so. When King Bindusara saw this, he vomited blood and passed away.

As soon as Asoka became king, his authority extended to the yakshas [who lived] as far away as a yojana above the earth, and to the nagas [who lived] a yojana beneath it. [As his first act] he appointed Radhagupta prime minister.

Susima learned that Bindusara had died and Asoka had ascended the throne. The news made him furious, and he hastened to return to the capital.


Scan from the Asokavadana: The ministers thwart Bindusara's plan to send Asoka to Takshila and make Susima his heir. Asoka is anointed king by the Gods. Bindusara dies of shock soon after. Susima hears that Asoka has become the new king and returns hastily to the capital.

Meanwhile, in Patliputra. Asoka posted his two great warriors at two of the city gates and Radhagupta at a third. He himself stood at the eastern gate. In front of it, Radhagupta set up an artificial elephant, on top of which he placed an image of Asoka that he had fashioned. All around he dug a ditch, filled it with live coals of acacia wood, covered it with reeds, and camouflaged the whole with dirt. He then went and challenged Susima: " If you are able to kill Asoka, then you can become the king!"

Susima immediately rushed to the eastern gate, intending to battle with his half-brother, but he fell into the ditch full of charcoal, and came to an untimely and painful end.

After he had been killed, his own great warrior, Bhadriyuddha, was initiated into the Buddhist order and became an arhat along with his retinue of several thousand men.

Once Asoka became king, many of his ministers began to look upon him with contempt. In order to discipline them, he ordered them, [as a test of their loyalty], to chop down all the flower and fruit trees but to preserve the thorn trees.

"What is your majesty planning?" they asked, "should we not rather chop down the thorn trees and preserve the flower and fruit trees?" And three times they countermanded his order.


Scan from the Asokavadana: Susima rushes to challenge Asoka at the eastern gate but is killed by deceit. Asoka's ministers look upon him with contempt. As a test of their loyalty, Asoka asks them to cut down fruit and flowering trees and retain the thorn trees. They question the wisdom of this order.

Asoka became furious at this; he unsheathed his sword and cut off the heads of the 500 ministers.
Scan from the Asokavadana: Asoka beheads the 500 ministers.

The Asokavadana provides a detailed account of Susima's death. He is seen to be killed by deceit by Radhagupta, the prime minister of Asoka.

Account from the Divyavadana

The account from the Divyavadana is similar to that from the Ashokavadana. I have scanned two pages from the Pamsupradanavadana section of the Divyavadana 6. The translation of the account from the Ashokavadana serves as the reference for the account from the Divyavadana also.

Scans from the Divyavadana

Account from the Mahavamsatika

The Mahavamsatika glorifies the story of Asoka's accession 7 .

It states that when Bindusara's wife, the queen Dharma*, was pregnant, she expressed the desire to trample on the moon and the sun, and to play with the stars, and to eat up the forests. The old people of Patliputra were asked to interpret these events. Since Queen Dharma was a devotee of the Ajivika sect, an Ajivika ascetic succeeded in interpreting the meaning of her desires. He declared that her wish to trample on the sun and the moon indicated that her son would conquer the people of India {using the modern name}, and rule over the entire country. The other desires signified that her son would kill those of his brothers who would displease him. 

* - In this account, the name of Asoka's mother is given as Dhamma, not Dharma.

This account states that Asoka had a 100 brothers, of whom he spared only 1 (his own younger brother). The Ajivika ascetic also predicted that Asoka would destroy the 96 heretical sects and would associate himself actively only with Buddhism.

Due to the low quality of text, i am uploading only 1 Sanskrit scan, which tells almost the entire story mentioned above:

Scan from the Mahavamsatika: This account states that an ascetic had predicted that Asoka would kill 99 of his brothers and also destroy 96 heretical sects, associating himself only with Buddhism. The ascetic had also predicted that Asoka would rule over the whole of India.

These were the accounts that mention how Asoka killed his brothers in order to become the king of Magadh. Now, let us take a look at the edict issued by Asoka himself around 256 BC, i.e., 13 years after ascending the throne of Magadha. This is known as the 5th Rock Edict of Asoka. This rock edict goes against the myth of Asoka killing his brothers, as mentioned in the legends about him, which we saw earlier.

Shahbazgarhi Rock Edict of Mauryan Emperor Asoka, also called 5th Rock Edict. Shahbazgarhi is a historic site in Mardan District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is known for the rock edicts of the Mauryan emperor Asoka.

The Shahbazgarhi rock edicts are cut into the surface of two large boulders on the side of a small rocky outcrop in the Vale of Peshawar. The record fourteen edicts of the Mauryan emperor, Asoka and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia. Dating to middle of the third century BC, they are written from right to left in the Kharosthi script. The presence of Kharoshti suggests that the influence of Achaemenid rule in this region, the province of Gandhara, outlived the short Alexandrian interlude of the fourth century BC. The fourteen major edicts recorded at the site present aspects of Asoka’s Dhamma or righteous law. The edicts are located beside one of the ancient trade routes connecting the Vale of Peshawar with the valley of Swat, Dir and Chitral to the North and the great city of Taxila to the South East.

Asoka's 5th Rock Edict

Asoka's 5th Rock Edict says that his brothers were alive 8a and living in Patliputra, 13 years after his accession to the throne.

Here is the English translation of the edict. There are many reputed historians 8b who have proposed the translations of Asoka's edicts. I have taken the most modern translation 8c, to the best of my knowledge:

Thus speaks the Beloved of the Gods, the king Piyadassi {Asoka}: It is hard to do good and he who does good, does a difficult thing. And I have done much good. And my sons, my grandsons and my descendants after them until the end of the world if they will follow my example, they too will do good. But he who neglects my reforms even in part will do wrong, for sin is easy to commit.

In the past there were no officers of Dhamma. It was I who first appointed them, when I had been consecrated for thirteen years. They are busy in all sects, establishing Dhamma, increasing the interest in Dhamma, and attending to the welfare and happiness of those who are devoted to Dhamma, among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Gandharas, the Risthikas, the Pitinikas, and the other peoples of the west. Among servants and nobles, brahmans and wealthy householders, among the poor and the aged, they [the officers of Dhamma], are working for the welfare and happiness of those devoted to Dhamma and for the removal of their troubles. 

They are busy in promoting the welfare of prisoners should they have behaved irresponsibly, or releasing those that have children, are afflicted, or are aged. They are busy everywhere, here [at Pataliputra] and in all the women's residences, whether my own, those of my brothers and sisters, or those of other relatives. Everywhere throughout my empire the officers of Dhamma are busy in everything relating to Dhamma, in the establishment of Dhamma and in the administration of charities among those devoted to Dhamma. For this purpose has this inscription of Dhamma been engraved. May it endure long and may my descendants conform to it.

5th Rock Edict of Asoka: States that his brothers were staying in Patliputra 13 years after Asoka's accession

Information related to the Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts of Mauryan Emperor Asoka

Account by Prof. C D Chatterjee from the Journal of Ancient Indian History

The following extract from an article published in a reputed journal by the noted historian Late Prof. C D Chatterjee 9a , which also refutes the information provided in the Buddhist / Tibetan legends. 

The journal 9b furnishes the following valuable information, which 'challenges' all the Buddhist legends. Mr. Chatterjee states 9c :

According to the Mahavamsatika - Asoka was born of queen Dharma, who was the princess of the Moriyan royal family 9d , while, in the Asokavadana & Divyavadana, etc. Buddhist texts, Asoka's mother is said to be Subhadrangi, a brahmana lady of Champa city * . 

Asoka was the heir apparent and not Susima. But in the Avadana texts {Asokavadana and Divyavadana}, Asoka has been represented as the "usurper". Susima might have been the eldest son of Bindusara but that did not justify his claim to the throne, judged by the law of succession followed in the Moriyan royal family.

* - We saw this in an earlier blog post. 
Link : The HISTORY of Bindusara, Dharma and Asoka

Prof. Chatterjee's notion that Queen Dharma was a princess from the Moriyan clan is substantiated by the Bodhi Vamsa, an ancient Sri Lankan Pali manuscript, which has preserved some rare details. 

Account from the Bodhi Vamsa

The Bodhi Vamsa is also a Sri Lankan text in Pali language, which quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources. It has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known. It is considered important while comparing various versions. Ashokavadana says Dharma was a commoner brahmana from the city of Champa, but this text mentions her to be a royal princess from the Moriyan clan, as can be seen in the scan above. An earlier post made on this blog from Ashokavadana {see link given earlier} has already mentioned the earlier version - that Queen Dharma was a Brahmana girl.

Scan from the Bodhi Vamsa: States that Queen Dharma was a princess from the Moriya clan.


Various scholars 10a have dismissed the notion of Asoka having 99 brothers, apart from Susima and Vikatasoka, as an exaggeration. What does seem factual from the study of the various texts is that there was a struggle for the throne among the princes after the death of Bindusara (273 BC), or a little prior to it. Asoka seems to have been at the centre of this power struggle and removed from his way those of his brothers who were opposed to his taking over the empire. Some scholars 10b opine that this period of struggle accounts for the interregnum of 4 years between the death of Bindusara and the coronation of Asoka. Though Bindusara died in 273 BC, it was not until 269 BC when Asoka was formally crowned as the ruler of the Magadh (Mauryan) empire.

There are scholars who reject accounts of a fight among the princes for gaining the throne, calling it "silly fiction of mendacious monks". Because if Asoka could leave behind records of his widespread massacre at the Battle of Kalinga through his rock edicts, then there is no logical reason to believe that he would not provide an account of the succession battle for the kingdom of Magadh, if there really had been one. His rock edict talks about his brothers and sisters living well in the capital of Patliputra during his reign. 10c

While the Divyavadana represents the war of succession as being fought between the two brothers Asoka and Susima, as we saw earlier, the Bodhi Vamsa represents it as a fight between Asoka and a coalition of his 98 brothers, who made a common cause with their eldest brother Susima, the yuvaraja, and hence the lawful heir to the throne.

The Divyavadana supports Asoka's claims by stating that even under Bindusara, the Ajivika saint, Pingalavatsa, summoned by the king, judged Asoka as the fittest of his sons for the throne, as we read above and also in an earlier post.

{Link : The HISTORY of Bindusara, Dharma and Asoka}

The Divyavadana also states that Asoka was backed by the entire council of ministers of Bindusara, including then prime minister, Khallataka, in his 'contest' for the throne.

The exaggeration about the number of brothers killed by Asoka, in the Buddhist sources, may have been prompted by their wish to describe him as a man who lacked all moral scruples until his conversion to Buddhism. 10d  In contrast, in his 5th Rock Edict, Asoka mentions {Dhamma/moral} officers who have, amongst their other functions, the responsibility of supervising the welfare of the families of his brothers, sisters, and other relatives.

This suggests that he did have brothers who were alive at the time the rock edict was issued (13 years after his accession to the throne). It can be argued that the reference is only to the families of such brothers, but scholars opine that this is stretching the point too far. The edicts give the meaning clearly. 10e

The topic is now open for debate.


1a. By Anton Schieftier
1b. By Professor Wassiljew

1c. By Enga Teramoto

2a. Mahavamsa, Panchama Adhayayaha, 40
2b. Mahavamsa, Panchama Adhayayaha, 20
2c. Mahavamsa, Panchama Adhayayaha, 150

3. Dipavamsa, Sastama Adhayayaha, 21/22

4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4g. Geschichte des Buddhismus in Indien, 1869, kapitel 6, seite 26, 27, 28

5. French to English translation of Przyluski's  La Legende de L'Empereur Asoka, 1923 by Dilip Kumar Biswas in Asoka in Indian and Chinese Texts, Calcutta 1967, Page-111

6. The Divyavadana, First Edited from Nepalese and Sankrit Manuscript in Cambridge and Paris, by E.B. Cowell, Professor of Sanskrit, University of Cambridge & K.A. Neil, Fellow and Lecturer of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1886, Page- 371

7. The Mahavamsa Tika, Edited from Sanskrit by B.J. Kashyap and Dr. S. V. Sohoni, A publication of The Nalanda Insitute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies in Buddhist Learning and Pali, Published under the authority of Government of Bihar, Vikrami Samvat 2028, Tritiya Adhayayaha, Pristha 152

8a. Asoka, Smith, MRAS, 1901, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Page-15

- Asoka's Edicts, Sen, Published for the Institute of Indology by The Indian Publicity Society, Institute of Indology Series 7, 1956, Page-74 ;
- Asoka, Smith, MRAS, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1901, Page-119/120/121 ;
- Inscriptions of Asoka, Sircar, Carmichael Professor and Head of Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, University of Calcutta, and the former General President of the Indian History Congress, former chief Epigraphist, Archaeological Survey of India, Publications Department, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, Revised 1967, Page-49/50 ;
- Select Asokan Epigraphs, Sachidananda Bhattacharya, Professor of History at Presidency College, Calcutta, Publisher - Firma KL Mukhopadhaya, 1960, Page-50
8c. Asoka and the Decline of Mauryas, Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1961, Page-252

9a. Here is a brief background of Prof. C D Chatterjee. He devoted his entire life to the study of Asoka's history. He was the doyen of Buddhist scholarship and Asokan studies in India. He founded the Department of Ancient Indian History & Archaeology in 1956 in the University of Lucknow. He was a great Pali scholar and made very important contributions in the field of Asokan History in particular and epigraphy and numismatics in general. He was honoured in 1982 by the Sri Lankan Government, University of Vidyodaya Pirivena, Colombo with the degree of Tepitaka-Bharti-Essarachariya, the highest academic degree awarded to any foreigner.
9b. Journal of Ancient Indian History, Calcutta University, 1966, Volume - I, Page-119
9c. References are given in the journal mentioned in 9b
9d. Bodhivamsa, Edited by S.A. Strong, Published for Pali Text Society by Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press, London, 1891, Page-98

10a. Smith, Tripathi, Thapar, B.P. Saha and K.S. Behera
10b. Asoka and the Decline of Mauryas, Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1961, Page-27
10c. Asoka, Smith, MRAS, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1901, Page-15
10d. Asoka, Macphail, United Free Church Mission, Bamdah, Oxford University Press, 1928, Page-19 ; Asoka and the Decline of Mauryas, Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1961, Page-27 ; Asoka, Smith, MRAS, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1901, Page-15 ; Asoka, Mookerji, Macmillan and Co. , London, 1928, Page-5
10e. Asoka and the Decline of Mauryas, Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1961, Page-27 ; Asoka, Mookerji, Macmillan and Co. , London, 1928, Page-5 ; Asoka, Smith, MRAS, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1901, Page-15

Other History Posts under Ashoka Maurya section:

1. Emperor Ashoka Maurya - Introduction to HIM and HIS Family

2. Chanakya's Novel Method to TEST Character of Ministers

3. What is the BASIS of GREATness ? | From Akbar to Ashoka to Alexander & Maharana Pratap

4. The HISTORY of Samrat Bindusara, Dharma and Ashoka

Thanks to Radhika for her contribution to this post.
The article has been posted under the Ashoka Maurya section of this history BLOG.

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