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Thursday, November 20, 2014

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum at Lahore | Pictures, Persian Inscriptions, English Translations, Explanations and MORE...

Hi all,

Though, i was supposed to post about the anecdotes involving Salim(Jahangir) and his mother Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum, which depicted the exceptional regard and respect Jahangir reserved for her. But for time being keeping that post on hold, today i am posting about the Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum, also called Begum Shahi Mosque, present in the Walled City of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was built under the patronage of her son, Mughal Emperor Jahangir, and named after his mother. This post also, reflects the amount of respect Jahangir reserved for his mother. 

This post contains - best possible pictures, snapshots of Arabic-Persian inscriptions from rare sources(many of these inscriptions have faded now), their English translations, their explanations, and the best possible researched-verified material possible for this topic. I hope, this post will transform you 400 years back; and as much as i enjoyed collecting the material and writing it here, you will like it too. Enjoy the journey.!

This is one of tho most ancient mosques of the Old Lahore city. It is situated close to the Masti Gate of the city, opposite the eastern walls of the Lahore Fort, or the street opposite Akbar’s Masjidi Darwaza (Masti Gate is a corruption of the term Masjidi) /Akbari Gateway of the fort. If one stands at the Akbari Gateway’s entrance, the domes of the mosque are clearly visible.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Interior Frescoes

As an inscription on the northern gateway shows, it was built in 1023 Hijri Year (1614. A. D.), during the reign of Jahangir. The foundation of this holy place was laid by his mother, Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum, or Harka Bai, the eldest daughter of Raja BharMal of Amer. It was constructed under the patronage of her son Jahangir, the designing came from his mother also. It was named after her, in her honor. 

The historians of Lahore, maintain that the color combination and frescoes of this mosque were unrivaled for the beauty in their prime. This mosque is celebrated for two very important features: the double domes with which the prayer chamber is crowned, and the exquisite fresco paintings on the interior surface. The mosque covers an area 135 feet by 127 feet. Constructed of brick masonry and rendered with plaster, it is a massive structure representing a transitional phase of architecture between the Lodhi/Pathan and the Mughal periods. The lofty aiwan gateway at the mosque's north entrance, provides access to the courtyard (128' x 82'), a few feet below the adjacent road level. Once boasting three lofty entrances (on north, south and east facades), the mosque today is hemmed in by later constructions, almost entirely concealing this jewel-like edifice. The superb combination of colours is also noteworthy. Shades of green, ochre, red, blue, yellow, and black have been used with subtlety.

The beautiful interior of the dome of Begum Shahi Mosque with its painted frescoes

The courtyard was originally enclosed by cloisters consisting of rows of cells on the north and south, some portions of which still exists. On the east along the gate is a 17-foot-wide platform, on which stands an enclosure consisting of an octagonal domed tomb and some other modern graves.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Front with the tank for ablutions

It's massive domes, one large and two side ones, and bulky arches, are in the old Pathan style, but the gateways, the balconies and the side rooms are in more Mughal in their construction than Pathan. The mosque is surmounted with 4 arched towers, one at each corner. It is built of bricks, cemented by domnar oil plaster of the best quality, so excellent indeed, that the strength of the building seems to depend entirely on its adhesive properties. In the centre of the court-yard of the mosque is a fountain of water for the ablutions of the faithful.  The construction of this mosque was under the superintendence of an officer Jawahar Mal Mistry.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Main Dome

The Mariam-Uz-Zamani mosque is said to be among the most beautiful Mughal structures. The beautiful contrasting colors, the stunning frescoes and the decorated arches are extremely impressive and speak volumes of the taste and aesthetics of the builder. Throughout the interior one can see floral and geometrical patterns in rich colors which together with the crowned double domed prayer chamber are the most striking features of the mosque. The similar colored frescoes are also visible on the ceilings of the Palace of Mariam-Uz-Zamani in Fatehpur Sikri.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Frescoes

In the centre of the courtyard is a tank for ablutions measuring 31 feet 5 inches by 26 feet 3 inches, now much repaired. A modern roof of reinforced cement concrete supported by two rows of round pillars partially covers the tank. The courtyard must have been paved with brick tiles in usual Mughal fashion, but it has now been completely re-laid in modern brick. On the northwest and southwest corners beside the prayer chamber are the old staircases leading to the roof. Similar staircases on the northeast and southeast corners led to the roof of the cells. Only traces are left now.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Corner Jeweled Frescoes

The prayer chamber of the mosque is an oblong structure measuring internally 130.5 feet from south to north and 34 feet from east to west. It has five compartments divided by heavy engaged arches supported by massive jambs and surmounted by high domes. The central double dome is the highest, placed on a high, round neck (11 feet 1 inch). The double dome consists of two shells, the inner one being of stucco. A wooden frame connects the two shells for reinforcement. The outer shell (3.5 feet thick) has a small arched opening to the west. The front openings of the chambers, five in number, possess four central arches, the central one being the highest, with a high parapet and a projected frame. The whole outer surface of the front has been treated with thick lime plaster, creating decorative arched panels in recess.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Interior treated with Lime Plaster

Inside the prayer chamber, there is a series of high, deep arched recesses set in all five compartments on the west. The central mihrab has an engrailed arch treated specially with profuse stucco ornaments which are geometric, floral, and inscriptional. The half-domed niche of the central arched opening and the mihrab has been filled with low stalactites. The remaining four compartments have the same engrailed arch treatment, though comparatively smaller and less decorative.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Geometric Patterns.Click for the full size image.

At the four corners of the prayer chamber are placed small, square pavilions (6 feet 10 inches) with four arched openings surrounded by cupolas placed on octagonal drums. Originally, the cupolas were crowned with a low cresting and finials, like the five bigger domes over the main prayer chamber. These have now considerably decayed.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Central Chamber

The mosque stands out for its unique fresco decoration, with which the whole interior surface of the prayer chamber is replete. The paintings are unrivalled for their delicacy, liveliness, perfection of technique, and variety of subject. The endless variety of geometric, floral, and inscriptional designs spread over the interior surface in a subtle colour scheme is not seen elsewhere. The surface has been divided into various panels of different shapes and dimensions according to the space available, and all the soffits, niches, squinches, arches, dome interiors, and apex are covered with these paintings.
Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - THE famous beautiful Central Arch

The squinches have been provided with low stalactites painted with small flower twigs, while the adjoining areas are divided into arched panels which have bold interwoven floral patterns. Some of the borders of the panels have geometric schemes of decoration. The patterns have been mainly created by carving slightly incised lines in white. The interior of the dome has similarly been divided into honeycombed geometric patterns, filled with delicate floral tracery. The small space in between is filled elegantly with stars which bear some of the attributes of Allah done in Naskh characters.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Originally a Fountain was present

Comparatively small in size, its present exterior hardly provides the foretaste of the wealth of decoration in the prayer hall. ---The central dome rises above the remaining domes and is carried on a drum; while those on the flanking bays are rather flat hemispherical cupolas. The treatment of the enormous dome itself is remarkable in its muqarnas (stalactite squinches) and elegantly painted fresco network.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Top view of above picture

The mosque was used during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh as a gunpowder manufactory, and on that account it came to be called the Barudkhana Wali Masjid, i.e., The Mosque of GunPowder. The mosque was restored back to the civilians by Major McGregor , the Deputy Commisioner of Lahore, in 1850 along with shops and houses attached to it.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Front Main Dome Interior


The mosque possesses several inscriptions, both Quranic and Non-Quranic, executed exclusively in plaster in high and bold relief, a characteristic feature, first met with here among the historic Mughal monuments of Lahore. Among the non-Quranic inscriptions, the one executed over the arch of the  entrance gate and one executed on the high facade of the prayer chamber are important, as they record the names and the date of construction of the mosque.

I could find 3 contemporary inscriptions on this mosque, after a lot of digging .!!! 

A 4th inscription was also present,  but i could not scan the clear picture as the archive was badly torn and beyond scanning capability. It was a beautiful passage from The Holy Quran.

The inscription on the entrance gate is in Nastaliq characters, and that on the facade of the prayer chamber is in Naskh-Suls. Here, are the snapshots...


a. Inscription on the Northern Gateway

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Inscription on North Gate

The verses read in Arabic-Persian as follows:
{Thanks to my friend Tamy for reading the Persian lines for me.}

" Allahu Akbar

minat izdak rak e akar ghast karaz ibteda 
hum betafeeq khuda o hukum sahab masnade 
Hazrat Mariam Zamani bali HazMalkaan 
kaz anayat illahi sakhta e jayi hadye 
azpaye tarikh khatam ain e banaye chawan behsaht
fikar mi ker dum ke akhir yaftem khush masjid se "

The verses read after English translation are as follows: 

{I have tried my best to give as correct translation as possible.}

" God is great
God be thanked through whose grace/poise
Under the auspices/divine-token of His Majesty{i.e.,Jahangir} this building was completed.

To the founder of this edifice - of this place of salvation is the Queen Hazrat Mariam Zamani.
For the completion of this edifice which resembles paradise/heaven/jannat/swarga ,
I was thinking (of the date) when at last i found it in words - 'What a fine mosque'! "


The inscription thanks God for the elegance bestowed, and mentions the building was constructed under the 'divine token' of Jahangir. 

Finally, the inscription dedicates the last three lines to Hazrat Mariam-Uz-Zamani, mentioning her as the founder of this imposing building. It is possible that the foundation stone of this building was laid down by her. Further, it adds that, this place is as beautiful as heaven. And then, it seems that the inscription is saying to Mariam-Uz-Zamani - what a fine mosque it has been.

Till date where ever, i have found any mention of Mariam-Uz-Zamani, by her son Jahangir, i have always found this word preceded by the Arabic title - 'Hazrat' . This title lends a divine meaning to the person, on whom it is bestowed upon. In English, it translates to "Her Highness", "Your honor", "Her Holiness". Jahangir has used this title ONLY for his mother, not even for his father Akbar, or no second person.

The piousness of lending this title to his mother can be concluded from the fact that, this title is used for The Prophet - Muhammad Sahab(salla Allahu Ężalay-hi wa-sallam), attaching respect to him.

Jahangir has placed his mother above ALL, in terms of giving her respect. My next post, will deal with this topic in details. This was a brief mention.

b. Inscription on the Eastern Gateway

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Inscription on East Gate

The verses read in Arabic-Persian as follows:

" Shah Alamgir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Badshaah

baad ya raab dr jahan roshan cho loor mehr o mah "

The verses read after English translation are as follows: 

" May the world conqueror Badshaah Nur-ud-din Muhammad
Shine in this world like the sun and moon, O God ! "


The inscription 'prays' to God on behalf of Jahangir, and asks that he may shine in the world like the sun and the moon. The mention of sun along with the moon is very interesting. Moon generally reflects the Muslim association, and sun is revered by the Hindus. This somehow points to 2 conclusions:
i. Jahangir's inclinations towards the faith of his mother.
ii. Jahangir's inclinations towards the other religions keeping in sync with the harmonious leanings of his father Akbar. 

We all know Sun has an important place in the Hindu Mythology. Akbar held Sun in high regard, and started worshiping Sun at some point of his life(not initially), which brought him into conflict with the orthodox Ulemas.!!
It is also certain that this inscription is a prayer from Mariam-Uz-Zamani for her son, considering the kind of words used.

c. Inscription on the Northern Arch

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Inscription on Central Arch

The verses read in Arabic-Persian as follows:

qaala Rasool Sallallaho Allahi Wa sallam al momin fi masjid ka lasmak fi alma "

The verses read after English translation are as follows:

" So, May the Almighty grant him the honor and grant him peace ! The faithful is in a mosque, as the fish is in water. "


Like a fish finds blessings(life) from water, in a similar manner the faithful one finds blessings from the place of worship(mosque), this is what is said by Muhammad Sahab, who may grant to the faithful - mercy and blessings.

Radical Changes witnessed by the mosque in 1890's :

We know that this mosque was handed to the civilians, in 1850. Later, around 1880's it was repaired. This mosque witnessed an unfortunate occurrence after over 280 years of it's construction. The following notice was engraved on the wall of this historic Mosque in 1895 .

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - The Inscription ADDED LATER in 1895

The 'declaration' appears to be in Urdu:{people who understand normal Hindi also can decipher the meaning as mentioned below}

" ba ittefaq-e-anjuman-e-hanafiah wa hukm-e-shara-sharif yeh qarar paya keh koi wahabi, rafizi, naturi wa mirzai masji haaza mein na aaway aur khilaf-e-mazhab-e-hanafi koi baat na karay – faqir ghulam qadir mutwalli masjid begum shahi 1313 Hijri "

The English translation of this 'declaration' is as follows:

" With the consent of the Hanafi Muslim Association and also in accordance with the Islamic Sharia, this was decided that no Wahabi (Salafi), Rafizi (Shia), Naturi (rationalist Muslim) and Mirzai (Ahmadi) is allowed to enter this mosque nor is anyone allowed to say anything against Hanafi sect in this mosque. 

 - By Faqir Ghulam Qadir, Custodian of the Begum Shahi Mosque, 1313 Hijri (1895 A.D.) "


Hanafi Muslims (comprising Barelvis and Deobandis) represent majority of Muslims in Pakistan. By an estimate, Shias represent 20%, Wahabis represent 10% while Ahmadis are estimated to be 3% of Pakistan’s Muslim population.

In sum, the above notice identifies four sects or groups of Muslims who are in numerical minority in Pakistan, and remain subject to various forms of social stereotypes/persecution are barred from entering this historic mosque. The details are NOT related to my topic, nor i would be discussing it here, but i thought of mentioning briefly, as this inscription is present in the mosque precincts now. This info was ONLY for informational purpose.

Present State of the Mosque:

Today, this beautiful mosque lies in a pathetic condition. Time and again several Pakistani newspapers have been demanding and raising the issue of restoration of this mosque and safeguarding it from the illegal encroachment. The articles are listed below with 2 videos.

Mosque of Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum - Encroachment

Here are some of the newspaper articles.

I am looking forward to reading your views on this topic. I will be discussing the topic of this mosque in finer details as comments on this post only.

This article has been posted under the Mughals(Akbar) section of this history BLOG.

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  1. yar abhay thanks for wonderful post..such main this shows how much salim respected & honoured muz..sad to see its condition now..abhay can u post info about Jalal punishing rukku so we il bazaofy CV Manish and zee again..

  2. Hi Abhay, wonderful journey to the past and thanks you for that. The painting is simply marvelous and the colors are vibrant. But the end was very sad, blacken outer dorm :( A silly question, where is it situated, India or Pakistan.

    This is also shows how much MUZ is tolerant towards other religion and so much alike Akbar. Soul mates. It is also built on 1614 means after Akbar past away. What a strong woman she is and my admiration towards her increased many fold.

    Thank you for all the diggings Abhay g-)

  3. Hey Abhay.!
    Iqra here..Finally, i am back to join you..Remember me?

    What an amazin' piece 'tis has been.!
    Huh.! I 've fallen in love with tis post and to you too .!

    The inscriptions prove beyond doubt the respect Salim had for his mother. Addressing her as Hazarat.!!!! Nothing is more reverent than 'tis in our religion. Engraving the name of MUZ on this mosque reflects her continued authority in old age too.

    Lets hope 4 d mosque's restoration to tk place asap.

    I follow you regularly. Cud nt resist after reading this one. Excellent. This surpasses all posts.

    Postin' my post here, which i shared earlier, on your Lost Symbol Thread..Tis needs to be read by people who don't believe in Jodha Akbar.

    Hey bruh...'tis a devoted follower of your every
    comment posted by u on 'dis forum...appreciate the respect ur threads
    give to Sufis and saints and hold every creed in high honors...ur
    outlook at deducing the things in most logical manner with proof is
    unparalleled...i like tis, being from a scientific field, i appreciate
    proofs.....Belong to a very conservative family of sunnis in faizabad district, uttar pradesh...first girl to get higher education from my clan in the village...mughals fascinate me due to a special bond we have with
    them...we are the descendants of the weavers who made the finishings for the royal suits of mughal emperors and empresses...the last suit was
    sent 3 generations many of our area have migrated to bhadohi carpet zone, after akhilesh yadav govt. new schemes for skilled
    weavers...coming to point...the complete belt of our area know about
    akbar and his hindu rani for generations...i wanted to know more about
    them...there were no libraries in big bookstores...the
    clerics in our area call akbar a kaafir...blaming his hindu rani for
    turning him a infidel...they dislike akbar and his hindu rani in our
    area...came the movie jodha akbar and i became more involved in the
    quest to discover them...searched wikipedia and many websites...but tis
    made me hate akbar...raw and obsolete text was written about him...i
    stopped searching as i never got any source to read on them...atlast
    came to know abt you from my friends in St. Stephen's College who
    started watching the show for rajat and paridhi since august and found
    your posts on this forum...they all follow your posts like any other
    brand in Delhi Univ.- ask'd me to google 'history_geek jodha akbar' to
    get to you. With underscore character in ur id... i discovered reality
    of real akbar...thanks to you...i read the persian munthakhab by
    badaouni given in ur thread...i wanted to verify the marrying once
    statement of akbar and ruqayya which you said is wrong..not that i
    suspect you but wanted to read from my own eyes...took me 4 months to
    read the said book...understood what efforts it takes to search the
    truth...tis was more tough than drafting a research paper for Nature ! I
    have procured gulshan i ibrahimi from the source in your thread and
    reading it now..if you visit zakir hussain library again then inform to meet you..along with me my cousins back in Faizabad follow
    you every weekend from the nearby cyber cafe...we don't have a computer at home...thank you for providing these valuable and priceless gems from the annals of our past...

    After tis serial, the forums will shut down but your efforts will
    be remembered forever.

    jodha akbar in heaven must be smiling this day...someone stood
    for them, after 400 years despite all odds...unka aks tumhari posts mein
    dikhta hai...shukriya hamein sach se mukhatib karane ke liye...kehte
    hain aaftab ka noor chupaye nahi chipta ... Waise hi jodha akbar ki
    dastaan nahi mit sakti...chahe koi kitni bhi koshish karle...hum dua

  4. i wish i could go and see this mosque…its in such a bad condition though..the above initial pics are so beautiful.cant believe this place was so beautiful.salim really respected his mom,now i want to know did he love her equally.

  5. Thank you so so much Abhay for making this post... I have a FB friend from lahor who informed me about MUZ mosque 3 years ago... since then I was searching about this mosque but Google failed to satisfy me.... Thank you once again for this beautiful post... I am overwhelmed by this post....

    This mosque itself speaks volumes about the kind of respect , regards and affection Jahangir had for his mother....

    The mosque is so beautiful!!!! The intricate work in the ceiling is so so beautiful and this place looks so peaceful.... I wish I could go there and see that place for myself..... The inscriptions is saying so much about the mother - son relationship...

    Thanks a ton for this post once again

  6. Thanks Abhay for this absolutely wonderful post. CLAPS.
    I don't know why but seeing the photos and the description made me feel very emotional.

    The more I read about HK (Jodha of JA serial) the more I marvel at her life. What a woman - she must have been an exceptional woman for her to have held such power, respect and love of the two probably most important men of that time.

    When we think of the way she was married to Akbar and how she blossomed, won his heart - I just wish there was a way for us all to see this remarkable woman.

    I guess I got emotional because I have stopped watching JA cos I cannot BEAR to watch how they are depicting my Jodha. I wish you send the link of this blog to that twitter writer guy. How they are butchering the wonderful relationship shared by this mother-son.

    The more I read about HK from your blogs the more I love and respect her. Wish she somehow knows wherever she is that she is revered today also.

  7. Hey abhay! Thanx for the post. This clearly shows the amount of respect salim had for his mother. Now i am eagerly waiting for ur post on their relationship.

  8. OMG Abhay what a piece of info u got! I toh only read the Persian lines, u got the translations! MashaAllah! u r doing an awesome job dost! I am feeling so so honored that I am able to help u in your research.
    loved it.

  9. Lahore, Pakistan. U missed the initial para. check there. it is written. :)

  10. A big thanks for some really enchanting pictures of MUZ mosque Abhay (except the last picture which is showing how neglected this mosque is now and in need of urgent attention by the relevant authorities :( ).....The way intricate designs have been carved with finesse and filled with a myriad of colours in the interior dooms and also other parts of the mosque is simply mesmerizing.....Such talent, capability and detailing in those days says a lot about the 'karigars' and their 'karigiri' :).....The inscriptions on the mosque are 'sone pe suhaga'.....Speaks volume about Salim-MUZ relationship and the care taken regarding both religions while writing them....

  11. Awesome ...Simply marvelous Abhay...!! g-)
    Not only the structures whose pictures are posted here...but the effort that you have put into collecting them...:D

  12. Hi Abhay,

    Glad you made this post. There is no other way for me to have learnt about the existence of this once breathtakingly beautiful mosque, built for Harka bai / Jodha bai, Mariam-uz-Zamani.

    I am extremely happy that via the meaningful inscriptions, you have highlighted the amount of love and respect Jehangir had for his mother MUZ. I am imagining what a wonderful, charismatic, dignified, noble woman she should have been, what a huge positive influence she should have had in Jehangir's life, for him to have constructed such an opulent , yet divine structure, in her honor.

    The inscriptions are suggestive of a beautiful amalgamation of both the Hindu and Islamic faiths that Jehangir was nurtured upon.

    I have no words to describe the intricate craftsmanship and beauty of the patterns, detailing in designs and usage of rich colors in the frescos. It is absolutely magnificent.

    However, your last picture, tells us clearly that this once stately place of prayer, is now neglected and dilapidated. I sincerely wish that the government does something to rectify the situation and restore this majestic mosque to its original grandeur.

  13. Dear Abhay,
    Thank you so much for this valuable information. If not for you I would not have come across this information. Really appreciate all your efforts and hard work.

  14. Abhay! you bought tears to my eyes today. I has seen a picture of this mosque online but the details and inscriptions you have depicted take my breath away. Thank you for reminding us of how much Salim respected his mother. This is a much needed post for us Jodha/MUZ lovers as we slowly see the serial JA descend into willful destruction of history and depressingly enough Ruquaya begum slowly taking hold of Salim at the cost of his distancing himself from his mother . Thank you !!!!!

  15. what a wonderful post Iqra. And what a wonderful tribute to Abhay's blog. Happy readings!!!!

  16. Thanks...I got confused because one of the news link above says that Punjab state gov has allocated 50 plus million rupees for restoration.

  17. Thank you for sharing profound thoughts, Iqra. I loved your post. Amazed to learn about your lineage.
    Abhay's contributions are priceless. He is a scholar in the truest sense. He happily and eagerly shares his hard flawless research work with several readers around the world and educates them. That makes him a magnanimous history enthusiast.

  18. Hi Abhay! Scintillating post :)

    I cannot imagine the efforts you must have put in to collect all this information, the pictures, the inscriptions and the translations. Thanks to you too Tamy :)

    Abhay, this mosque is nothing short of a palace in the beauty of its interiors, the rich compositions, the opulence and the grandeur. The corridor photo took my breath away - so amazing. I have never been to a mosque but I cannot imagine any mosque could be so beautiful. What a lovely tribute to a mother from her son, to a queen mother from the emperor. Even though he must already have been married to Nur Jahan by then and the MUZ was in the last stages of her grand life.

    I told you how the Jodha-Akbar love story died for me after watching the show. You brought alive at least the Jodha-Salim relationship in irrefutable terms. Thanks so much :)

    I am really looking fwd to reading more about this deep bond between mother and son. It is esp important to me because of my own deep bond with my son - it is my worst nightmare that any woman should be capable of enticing my son away from me.

    And when you have the time, I wish to read more about the Akbar - Jodha / Harka love story. :)

    I was shocked, btw, to read that entry to the mosque was restricted. 400 years ago, the MUZ and Jahangir brought together the rich heritage of Hinduism and Islam to create an amazing tribute to the melting pot that was / is Hindustan / India. But later generations lost that generosity and tolerance of spirit and started closing their doors to people they perceived as "others". Nothing could hurt the founders of this mosque more.

    India or Pak, we let our heritage sites crumble and turn to dust in front of our eyes. Sometimes I think we do not deserve this rich heritage because we take it for granted and have no value / respect for it, leave alone love. I have seen Indians sitting on and jumping on royal tombs without a care as to where they are and what they are doing. Such a beautiful mosque would have been protected like a delicate icon of the past anywhere except the Indian subcontinent.

    Thanks again, Abhay, for bringing this rare treasure to us and the history behind it. I can't believe you belong to this couldn't-care-less-about-the-past generation and have so much respect for a woman who lived ages ago that you have dedicated your entire life and effort into unearthing her secrets. :)

  19. Iqra, welcome :) Thanks for sharing that gem of a post again.

    Please do share some more info that you may have about the Mughals, as your family was dedicated to their service for generations. :)

  20. Abhay', its a very informative for i think i have read all u r post.all are extordinary findings (for me)aswellas very intersting one.keep up the good work.i follow u regularly recentely only i joined u r twitter acc

  21. abhay, in the name of NR how the cvs spoiled such a beautiful story of jodha and akbar and their relation with salim! it is really disgusting to see NR when your article has given the reality about son-mother relation through pictures/proofs. i stopped watching the show. thanks a lot for this article with splendid pics.

  22. Preeti Charu Radhika

    Thank you 4 warm welcome. I am thankful 2 Abhay 4 bringing these facts 2 us. I was always in awe of Akbar and Abhay's MUZ{as he coined this term MUZ for Mariyam Zamani} since my childhood days. I found answers 2 my questions on his threads, and then 'tis blog. I was a silent reader. I found him on IF which was very unfair to Abhay. His threads got closed after complaining by prejudiced elements.
    Gr8 tat Abhay got a separate blog, free from moral policing.

    Abhay! You emerged victorious after pulling out from tat mess. You will find great worldwide readers here. Hats off dude 4 'tis effort. charu u have put it in words precisely. preeti. I loved your remarks on Akbar shared by you, eagerly waiting 4 Abhay's post. radhika. i have loved your threads from IF and i like sensitivity in your writings.

  23. Thanks Abhay for these beautiful pictures of MUZ mosque.
    My relative who went to Khusrau's mosque in Allahbad I think(I am confused about the city) he had shared the pictures with us ,it was very beautiful and I think there even Manbai's mosque is also there.

  24. Iqra, in many ways, IF helped Abhay to first produce some fine historical research material and writing. Secondly, it helped him discover friends like KDR and Lizzy and Tamy who have helped him tremendously in his research. Thirdly, it pushed him to start his own historical blog that has been such a success in such a short while and which will continue long after JA winds up. :)

    But this blog needs support from all quarters to keep it going. Please continue to read and discuss the posts here so that the blog can continue to flourish. :) It's fine for large platforms like IF to have silent readers but niche blogs need LOTS of discussions!

    Thanks for appreciating my writing. :)

  25. Abhay excellent post dear...I have no words to thank you....

  26. rashmi - architecture dedicated to khusrau and man bai is present in allahabad. we have a beautiful garden - khusrau bagh there. it was heavenly built by salim for man bai. wonder why did not he made one for ruqaiya begum and salima begum?

  27. beautifully said radhika. i will be more than happy 2 be present here as much as my job allows me. i make it a point 2 read everything written here. got lot of informative sources 4m abhay's posts. 1 can c blog's popularity by 44,000 views it got in over 2 months! thanks all.

  28. Clearly shows, these pic's,There Healthy relationship, which was connected to Heart +Soul, level seeing pic, feeling coming Thoughtless, Jahangir, Loves also showing MUZ,.

    Sad to read, Now this Mosque, is in worst, Condition,Govt should do, Necessary steps, Some Historical Monuments, Govt, working, they now improving, but this Mosque, belongs to Pakistan, But they (pakistan Govt) Should also work for its Improvement.

    My Grandmother belongs to Pakistan, her Early age once, she told us, she visited, a princess, Mosque, but i not know, which princess, Mosque she visited,

    sometime i think, Forum people so much Love Akdha, Cause of their Love, Jodha Akbar Love story is Aliving today. If we Recall, Jodha Akbar Movie, or Mughalzam, Movie, & Love & respectful relationship of Akdha clearly shows, But happened to Serial CV, they are Killing Our favourite, Akdha story Day by day.

    Cv should read History again,& Visit Agra fort,or Fathpur sikri, Fathpur sikri stones speaks Lot of Love & respect between Akdha.

  29. Thanks Iqra for the information.The pictures of Khusrau Bagh were indeed beautiful and your question is valid indeed

  30. Purani,
    There are 2 Punjabs after partition of India in 1947. One is in Pakistan, and another is in India. This mosque is in Lahore, which is now in 'Punjab of Pakistan'.
    @Tamy Thanks for answering. :)

  31. A big thanks to all the friends for registering some awesome comments. It's a humbling experience for me to read all of them here, and a tribute to the "son and mother".
    Like you all, i too went through emotions thinking/writing about this mosque which proves beyond doubt what MUZ meant as a mother to Jahangir, and equally enjoyed reading and collecting information about it.

    I too hope that concrete measures are taken to ensure the survival of this mosque.

    Nice to find many new members here. Hope to see them regularly, and feel free to discuss and share anything, as here we do not have any restrictions or 'stiff' moderation issues. ;p

  32. Awesome piece of info Abhay :)

    The interior of mosque is very beautiful and so are the inscriptions.

    Thank you for sharing this.

    Sad to see the last pic of current condition of this beautiful place...I hope govt does something to restore it's lost charm.

  33. Awesome Post Abhay. Appreciate the amount of effort you should have put for collecting these pictures,inscriptions ,Translations etc.. Your blog is a treasure trove for all history lovers and if not for you i would never have come across all these information's. Thanks for sharing

  34. Thank u iqra, fr that repeat post.It was a bit difficult to search ur post on the Forum.Can u please share more things u hv heard/ learnt frm ur Dadi, nani stories good as well as bad frm that era?

  35. iqra, Abhay's emerging victorious here also, as his postings make more n more silent readers come out in the open to comment.:)

  36. Than u Tamy, fr that translation, otherwise we would not hv understood the beautiful meaning of these inscriptions.

  37. Btw, Abhay, is there any mosque or any other structure built in the name of Ruquaiyya begum?or even a baug?There is Khusrau baug,in Allahabad, n I think, there is Daulat baug also.somewhere.

  38. Geeta,
    I have not read of a mosque/structure for Ruqayya Begum/Salima Begum built by Jahangir.

    Yes, there is a garden Daulat Bagh in Ajmer, which was setup by Jahangir as a resort, near the embankment of Anna Sagar Lake which which was made by the grandfather of Rajput Samrat Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan in early 12th Century. :)

  39. geeta,radhika - i can not give reference 4 my comment. i will tell what i heard. story of akbar's hindu rani is famous in r belt. there is no talk of anarkali. 2 my amazement nur jahan is not known as much as akbar's hindu rani. nur jahan's perception is not good. she is remembered in not so gud terms. there is no fascination of shah jahan and mumtaz's love. the famous talk is of akbar. he is criticized and he is praised also. i wrote 'tis earlier. many remember him for his love of hindu begum. 4 d same reason d orthodox elements do not discuss him, he is called kafir.

    we hear abt d torture dungeons used 2 punish d captives. famous ones in agra fort. i dont know abhay how much is true. u can authenticate it. there r many stories. some i found in folklore section of this blog in beautifully garnished format.

  40. There is also a Qudsiya Bagh lying to the north of the Kashmere Gate. It was built in 1748 by Nawab Qudsiya Begam, a dancing girl who was the favorite mistress of Muhammad Shah (1719-48) and mother of Ahmad Shah (1748-54).

    The palace and other buildings laid out in the garden have disappeared. The western gateway, which was the main gateway, still stands.

  41. Missing u terribly, Radhika, Where is this Kashmere gate? R they frm mughal lineage?

  42. Awesome, History-geek, i had commented on ur excellent post, I don't know where it has gone, nevertheless i repeat. i was dumbfounded, don't know how to thank u. First of all, the pictures r so lifelike! can't believe they r 450 years old art.The vibrant colors used, make the whole place, heavenly. I think I hv seen the color combination of blue n red also in Udaipur mahal.
    The beautiful structure shows it has been done with love n care. Jahangir has taken into account his mother's choice, which speaks volumes of his love fr his mother.
    The inscription on the eastern side must be the wrdings of MUZ as the phrase jab tak sooraj chanda rahe, is of Hindus.This also shows MUz's influence on Salim.
    The structure is made of which stone, Abhay? The interior seems to be different frm Taj mahal.
    U shouldn't hv posted that picture of present state of this Mosque, history-geek, I feel so bad, my heart goes out fr mUz.Is it been ruined frm outside or also inside?
    Thank u n ur team fr sharing this excellent pice of info, how I wish it was in Agra!

  43. hi....
    thanks a lot for this post......
    hats off to your work.....
    its really great to know about mother son relationship.

  44. Missing me ? I am v much here :)

    Kashmiri Gate is one of the 14 main gates of Shahjahanabad. These people were later-day Mughals. :)

    Mentioned Qudsiya Bagh esp for you, as you were asking about baghs for Mughal ladies ;)

  45. Iqra,

    You have echoed my sentiments in your post. I have dug up the same thing. :)

    The "PEN" is a very powerful medium. A particular chapter of history can be made very "dominating" using this "PEN".

    The fact that, the story of Akbar and his Hindu Queen still circulates in the Golden Triangle region of India, and still resides in the minds/hearts of masses, is a testimony to it. While many "scholars" and "intellectuals" contest this story citing polygamy as a reason, but the fact is that, you can not deny this story.

    Why are people so much passionate about it.? These same people find no interest in Anarkali(almost absent in this area), Nur Jahan, Mumtaz, but they find Akbar and his Hindu Queen quite interesting.!!!

    Coming back to "PEN" > It is the work of mostly the later authors who have written MOST of our accounts, the beauty of Taj made them popularize Shah Jahan-Mumtaz, and the dominance of Nur Jahan made them popularize Nur Jahan-Salim.
    In the 19th-20th-21st century these "written" books hit the shelves and in a period of last 50-75 years we got these NEW popular stories.!!!. I am not denying these stories, but only differentiating that to prove these stories you need "PEN" but for Akbar's you don't need anything, still you find it.!!

    ISN"T this beautiful ?

    Isn't it very surprising that the NATIVES of this belt, still REMEMBER ONLY Akbar and his Hindu Queen..!!!.

    This is what my findings say, and this is what you also mentioned. I have told many people this is one such tale which can NOT be dug up only by sitting in the libraries, one needs to travel for this..:)

    Yes , torture and execution dungeons were present in Agra Fort. They were located underground, the prisoners were secretly executed there...!!!!

  46. Thanks for the wonderful insight Geeta.
    Most damage has been made from outside. The inside portion still has a lot of beauty intact. This is made of marble, bricks, and adhesive used is "domnar oil plaster".

    Yes, this is a live testimony to the mother-son relationship. :)

  47. Sorry, missing ur post, also u didn't tell me whether u loved Chetak,the horse in MPwhich I asked u to watch, sure u will love him:)

  48. History-geek, I don't know, if u r going to hv seperate post fr Salim- n his mother, I hv a qstn in my mind, how many years must hv been taken fr the structure to complete?Could it be that MUZ might hv seen this completed beautiful mosque dedicated to her?

  49. Radhika, it's so strange, the mother-son relationship, n father- daughter relationship. They r different yet so similar! As a daughter I was more close to my father, n with the experience of my sons I can tell,the sons wherever they may be,the first person they remember to share the news, good, bad/sad is their mother.:)
    Actually the serial had lot of scope to showcase this unsung relationship, but they chose to clasp the love story of Anarkali instead.:(

  50. Hi Abhay,

    I don't remember in which post you mentioned this, but you said that you would find out more about the "Anarkali" tomb that Jahangir had you have any new info about it and who is buried there? Sorry for asking so many questions but India's rich history intrigues me....

    Thank You,


  51. Now Anarkali has left Agra and Mehrunnisa has entered. :)

    I agree many beautiful relationships could have been shown, but the makers chose to focus on only the negative ones. :(

  52. Geeta

    Since I don't watch JA any more, I have stopped posting as I have nothing to say. :)

    I saw Chetak when he was trying to draw MP's attention in the annual mela / bazar before Ajabde got kidnapped. I haven't seen MP also since 17th. Have to catch up. :)

    Yes, Chetak is a lovely horse, though i found it funny that he was shown to have "chosen" MP as his owner and was trying child-like tricks to get his attention. :) LOL Whether human (Meywa Jan) or animal (Chetak), everyone is hungry for attention. :)

  53. wow Abhay, thank you so so so much for your hard work and effort for this post and pictures. I would have never known about this place. It shows how much Salim valued his mother and gave Hazrat as tite, too. The last pic really saddens me to see the condition of one of the beautiful and important mosques. Hope they restore it soon.

  54. Radhika, nothing fascinating in MP also, both the serials r equally irritating.Conspiacy never stops, nobody gets punished. Seriously, if we go by TRP it seems people in general like negativity more than positivity.:(
    I thought Chetak was too much tall fr humans to ride on.

  55. Geeta,
    I find this Chetak and MP story very interesting. ;p
    Will post on it soon. :)

  56. Geeta,
    I don't know about the time taken for the completion of this mosque.! Will try to find it out. I will post about Salim and his mother surely. Right now, the work is in progress but in slow gear. :D

  57. Ika,

    No issues in asking questions. :)
    BTW, I did not mention Jahangir built "Anarkali" tomb. ;p
    Infact, there is NO confirmation till date with anyone that who is buried in that tomb. Please see the chain of comments on this thread. It will prove to be very informative. :)
    Link >

  58. Ayesha,
    Salim respected his mother in an "exceptional" manner. :)
    The makers of Jodha Akbar are showing it as a strained relationship, for dramatization and for sake of TRP's.

    I too hope this mosque is restored asap.
    Hope to see you more often here. :)

  59. That would be wonderful, Iqra. I am most curious to hear some tales that were not recorded but must have been handed down by word of mouth through the generations right down to you! Pls do share when time permits. :)

  60. Abhay, Radhika and all the other bloggers here. While we lament on the poor condition of this mosque , the sad reality is that we may not have any control over its fate as it is now in Pakistan. HOWEVER, I just read a plea on the Jodha/Akbar facebook page from a gentleman who just visited MUZ tomb and was telling us of the poor condition of the tomb. He wanted the public support to write to the UP govt to force them to preserve this monument better. I don't live in India but was wondering if a twitter campaign to raise awareness about this can help? Maybe if some of you have any connections with a newspaper so they can publish an article about it? The gardens of babur were raised from the dust literally by the Agha Khan Foundation that has done a fabulous job of renovating it as well as Humayun's tomb. Wonder if they can be pursuaded to take interest in renovating this monument?

  61. Preeti,

    Almost all the historic sites of this area face the same story.
    Humayun's Tomb and Babur's Tomb were at those places which are
    frequented by tourists but the Tomb of MUZ is at a secluded / peaceful place, away from a tourist attraction.

    Sadly for all of us, the restoration of this place is a very tough task. A twitter campaign can be started on this, but for that a lot of support from many many quarters will be needed. Few people won't be successful.

    I have seen the pictures of this tomb from outside, and let me tell that it is situated in a "very" big garden. :) And is quite grand like any other Mughal Tomb. But due to lack of conservation efforts it is suffering. The case of Akbar's tomb is also not very rosy. Recently, SC(or the HC?) gave orders for conservation of wildlife in the park of Akbar's Tomb.

  62. Abhay, Thanks for the reply. Makes me sad though. the Story of Jodha and Akbar seems to have captured the popular imagination after this show. I wonder if just an article in a newspaper may help. Anyways, Abhay in 2009 I visited Sikandra specially to pay my respects to Akbar. My kids and husband groaned and rolled their eyes at me as they impatiently wanted to move on to see the Taj and then FS. The tomb is hauntingly beautiful but deserted. His cenotaph is stunningly simple. I was not allowed to upstairs but you posted pictures of the upper stories somewhere. I was awed by how simple his tomb was but how powerful in real life he really was. It is sad that not too many people want to see it. On my way out the "guide" ( a local tout) casually mentioned the tomb of Marium Uz Zamani and told me there was not much too see. Abhay look at my ignorance back then ..I turned to my husband and said : " Wait Jodha was called MUZ???" thats how little I knew of my own history. If I had known then what I know now I would have definitely gone to see it

  63. Preeti

    I feel one should visit historical sites alone or with like-minded people only. If we tag along people, including family and friends, for whom it is merely "sight-seeing" or a "picnic", then neither they nor we enjoy it much. :)

  64. True Radhika, now that i am reading about akbar / mughal history I am determined to go to these places on my own without dragging my family with me ( my husband thinks I am obsessed !) Right now can't leave the kids for too long .but some day I will try to spend some quality time at the libraries/ archives of India and visit these shrines with a whole new perspective Until then I will satisfy myself with Abhay's Blog :)

  65. preeti - as abhay says it is at such a place tat it is not easy 2 make government restore it. the revenue factor will b tricky. but i agree with abhay tat salim has reserved a very big park 4 his mom's tomb. it is built in centre of big garden. the pathway leading 2 its entrance 4rm outside gate is 40+ feet long. it is very silent beautiful place. but the condition is bad. anti social elements come more often in tat area like akbars tomb.

  66. preeti-radhika- the guides r ignorant. some guides tell people - muz palace as palace of christian wife who is muz only. it is gud 2 read b4 visiting. its not possible 2 find gud guide. i m also reading history nd find abhays blog perfect place to chat wid u ppl abt history.
    abhay - if u cn get mor ppl here? v will feel vry gr8.

  67. Iqra, guides are always unreliable. :)

    They may be having the same confusion that Maryam sounds like a Christian name. :)

  68. The same situation here also, with me coolpree. I had visited all these places, twice but i don't remember Jodha mahal. My own pictures infront of all these monuments r the only proof I hv. Only if I had known this beautiful story then, I would hv got connected to these places. Ab pachtake kya fayda :(

  69. Well said Radhika, touring with the knowledge makes lot of difference.

  70. same here Geeta. have been to FS twice and each time the guide gave us a different spin on the same palaces :(

  71. Iqra, Radhika, Geeta, Preeti & all,

    I am trying my best at the moment to make this blog the best possible and easiest means to freely discuss history. :)

    But, in order to have more people discussing the topic here "OPENLY", i will need support from you all also. :)

    Share the blog link with as many people possible and on social media too, encouraging them to share "their" findings here, so that we can have more and wider dissemination of knowledge. :)

    In this manner, we will surely get more people discussing here. I have always laid stress on sharing and discussing anything. :)

  72. Certainly, history-geek, iwill wait fr that interesting post on Chetak. I am told horse is the most loyal animal second only to dogs. Morover there r many tales of Chetak being the savior n best frnd of MP.
    The Chetak smarak is the best testimony to their relationship.

  73. Geeta

    Where is this Chetak smarak located?

  74. Udaipur. :)

    Will make a new post asap on Chetak.

  75. Thank you :)

    Was this Chetak really deserving of all the glory associated with it? Or did MP's glory rub off on to it? :)

  76. Radhika,
    I do think there was something special in Chetak. :)
    Wait for the post, we can discuss there. :D

  77. Radhika, please see my reply on MP thread:)

  78. iqra,I hv some qstns regarding Mosques. U can choose not to answer any of them if it is uncomfortable.
    We had been to Ajmer Sharif thrice n it was really a nice experience.We saw there every person frm all caste, creed women children r allowed.We bowed down at the place i presume where the body of saint is was nice feeling to be blessed with chhamar.Now my qstn is do all mosques hv some saints' body burried in it? If not where do u identify where to bow down? I hv not seen any other mosque frm inside except fr Salim chisti.
    What is the importance of friday namaaz? n also the white cloths?What do he caps signify? Or they r just traditional? i hv not seen any women going to mosque, but in JO-AK they hv shown all women doing Namaaz?
    Treat it as a qstn frm ignorant person.:)

  79. Geeta

    Iqra is the best person to answer this. But I will tell you what I know. :)

    A mosque is where Muslims go to pray. The prostration made to Allah is called sujood(?). The head priest is called imam.

    A dargah is a shrine built by Sufi muslims over the grave of a respected religious leader / Sufi saint like Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti or Salim Chisti. Such saints are usually considered as servants or messengers of Allah.

    A dargah is not technically a place of worship because Islam says only Allah should be bowed to.

    Generally I have not seen women going to mosques but Iqra will be able to answer this better. But they do do the namaz in their home.

    Anyone can go to a dargah because Sufism is inclusive and welcomes all.

    Jummah or Friday prayers are congregational prayers that have been considered most important since the time of the Prophet. Friday is considered a most auspicious day for muslims. It is said that one who offers prayers in the mosque with the imam on this day and performs good deeds is rewarded by the Almighty and his sins forgiven. The imam also recites the khutba, a special preaching. I think even women can go for jummah prayers, though separately from men.

    Wearing the cap is not compulsory but it is generally considered better to pray with the head covered as a sign of modesty and a sign of respect for Islamic traditions.

  80. geeta - radhika replied b4 me 2 ur ques. she z ryt in wht she wrote. 1 point abt women going 2 mosque. 'tis depends on place 2 place. in my home town women did not go 2 mosques.i know 'tis 4rm child memories. bt in delhi i hv seen women accompanying dere families n dey go 2 mosques in ramzam ka mahina in big numbers. delhi jama masjid is the place 2 find dem.

  81. oh sure, just dying of curiosity to learn more about Chetak :)

  82. Abhay fantastic loved reading it and lot of information collected by you Is this mosque used regularly or a historical site

  83. OMG! Radhika, u r a khazina of knowledge! Thank u so much.That means Darga n Mosques r different.mosque is like a temple. In a way Darga is also temple, where everybody can pray.
    Friday is similar to Sunday fr christians ,Thursday fr some Hindus.
    Radhika, same thing holds fr Gurudwara also? We hv Sant GuruSahib's photo n also a shrine built on the grave of the Saints but never seen an idol in it.

  84. Geeta

    A mosque is similar to a temple. A dargah is also a highly holy place where anyone can go to seek the blessings of the saint buried there. Many people ask for mannat also in a dargah by tying a holy thread there, as you may have seen in JA. :)

    Sikhs do not believe in idol worship. They pray to the Guru Granth Sahib, their holy book. They are supposed to live by the principles outlined in this book.

    There are no tombs in either a mosque or a gurudwara.

    The central shrine, so to say, is the holy book only in the gurudwara. The photos of the ten Sikh gurus may be hung on the walls. The birth anniversaries of these gurus are celebrated as Guru Parv.

  85. Sunram,
    This mosque is used mostly for prayers, and sadly this is not promoted as a historical site.

  86. Thank u Radhika,for giving me the right information;)

  87. Akbar and Salim were both very respectful towards their mother and foster mothers/step mothers and even mothers-in-law (?).

    Once, Akbar apparently carried the palanquin of his mother, while crossing a river. The first food Akbar ate after lengthy periods of fasting was brought from his mother's house. He was deeply distressed when Hamida Banu passed away in 1604. It is said that he shaved his head and beard and stopped wearing jewelry.

    Akbar was equally respectful towards Maham Anga, Jiji Anga etc. Generally, very high noble women who were trustworthy and close to the royal family were chosen as the foster mothers or anagha. Once a woman nursed a prince, she remained his foster mother for life and was treated as such. Akbar deeply mourned the death of Jiji Anga too by shaving off his head and moustache. And he forgave his foster brothers (koka) like Adham Khan, Mirza Koka etc many times.

    The foster brothers and even the husbands of the foster mothers (atakah) became part of the imperial family and rose high in the imperial service. Aziz Koka was given the title of Khan-i-Azam and rose to a level just below that of a prince of royal blood. His daughter was married to Akbar's grandson, Khusrau. Shams ud-din Ataka was Jiji Anga's husband and rose to the level of vakil at the time of his death.

    Salim, we know, always bowed deeply to his mother out of respect for her. He even touched her feet. It seems, he extended the same respect towards his mother-in-law, Gulrukh Miranshahi, too. Once she fell sick in 1614 and offered a robe of honour to Salim. He accepted it against the propriety of the emperor. This shows that he regarded the mother as above all and deserving to be honored.

    Abhay has shared many examples of ceremonies being conducted in the houses of Hamida Banu and MUZ.

    Mausoleums were built for foster mothers too.

  88. Hi Radhika, thanks for these info.

    its very interesting nice to read and simple to understand then why was ruq show so influenza in the show and in book also most powerful lady was ruq beg its given so many book so many info but still Akbar harem is a secret place for us

  89. Preeti,

    Thanks a lot for sharing this here. I wanted some one else to share his/her reading from the Jahangirnama, so that people may exactly know what the reality is. I have been telling the same a lot many times to a lot of people that one should read the Jahangirnama personally so as to know the truth. I am glad and thankful that you did it and shared this. :)

    BTW, i want to post this comment "as it is" as a separate post, so that this experience of a reader(i mean you), other than me, reaches out to more and more people.. ?? :)

  90. so glad you liked it Abhay. Yes please post this as a separate post if you like. I would be honored :}

  91. Preeti

    This is so beautiful and touching. I am so glad you shared these excerpts here. Thank you so much!!! :)

    Mughals really had a great deal of respect for women, esp mothers, even foster mothers and their families. There is an interesting theory how the Mughals regarded the (extended) family most in the running and development of the empire.

    Pls continue to share your reading experiences here. I really enjoy reading your insightful posts and I am sure, so do others.

    Preeti, I think you and Abhay and others will like this article.

    It is about how Persian came to be associated with Mughals.

  92. Thanks so much Radhika, coming from you this is a real compliment. Thanks for article will read it today

  93. Thank u Iqra, U r right, it may differ frm place to place . In my area, I hvn't seen any woman going to mosque..Yes Radhika is a ready reckner :)