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Friday, March 13, 2015

Farman of Wali Nimat Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum with Scan of Original Persian Document

Hi Friends,

This post is about an edict(Imperial Order/Farman) issued by Mariam-Uz-Zamani(MUZ) Begum - one of the most awaited posts on this blog, for which many of you have sent enough blogger form messages and posted many many comments here. Sorry for the delay, but this post is worth it's wait.

Before we start, let me tell the brief contents of this post. The Imperial Order of MUZ is discussed at the end of the post, and before that various terminologies related to Imperial Mughal Farmans have been discussed. This post contains the Original Persian Scan of that Farman, along with some scans from the Indian Historical Records Commission Meeting, 1925 at Lahore ; which describe the title of "Wali Nimat" conferred on Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum. Let us start now.

We all know that Wali Nimat Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum had the privilege to issue edicts. {See this earlier post, where this was mentioned, along with the same hukm that is discussed in this article --> Link

Today, sharing the details of a hukm or edict issued by this remarkable lady with you. It was fascinating to see how involved she was in such a routine court matter as the embezzlement of the assets of a court employee by a Zamindar. This is an example of how she was involved in resolving the civil disputes among the masses through her edicts.

A hukm is simply an edict issued by a Queen-Mother or a Royal Consort. Similarly, an edict issued by a prince's consort or a princess is known as a nishan.

Parts of a Hukm

Let's first understand what a hukm consists of / looks like.
"Hukm", literally means an order.

1. A hukm has an invocation at the top. You may remember that Akbar replaced the earlier invocation from Babur and Humayun's reigns - Huwal Ghani - with Huwal Akbar and Allahu Akbar. {This link refers to the post where the change of invocation by Akbar was discussed --> Akbar Changes Invocation.} Mariam-uz-Zamani continued to use the last invocation even in the reign of her son.

2. The hukm of a Queen-Mother carries an unwan below the invocation. The hukm of Mariam-uz-Zamani carries the unwan "hukm i Maryam Zamani" (meaning - edict of Maryam Zamani).

3. The hukm is adorned with a beautiful seal, affixed to the right of the unwan. The seal is usually of a peculiar stamp and shape. It usually contains a legend which includes the name and titles of the owner, along with the appellations of her father, husband or son and the year of engraving the seal. The seal on the hukm of Mariam-uz-Zamani resembles a pitcher and carries the legend,

"Wali Nimat Begam walidah i Jahangir Badshah"

This translates to Wali Nimat Begam, mother of Emperor Jahangir.

4. The first 2 lines of a hukm are abbreviated in order to distinguish it from a parvancha of a minister (in which all the lines are of equal length)

Importance of a Hukm

A hukm ranks next only to the farman of an Emperor. The historical value of a hukm cannot be underestimated - for instance, the hukms of Maryam Makani and Mariam-uz-Zamani Begam not only add to our knowledge of history but also prove how the Queen Mothers implemented the religious and agrarian policies of the emperor.

You can read a farman issued by mother of Akbar - Maryam Makani Begum at this link given below. She had confirmed an earlier order of her son Mughal Emperor Akbar in which he had granted a favor to a Brahmin of Mathura. The Original Farman issued by Akbar will be posted soon, till then, here is the link to the Farman of Hamida Bano Begum: Maryam Makani Hamida Banu Begum's Farman

The hukm of Maryam Zamani is important for 2 more reasons:

1. It is the only contemporary document that so clearly identifies Wali Nimat Begam with Maryam Zamani and calls her the mother of Jahangir. She was the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber who married her to Akbar at Sambhar near Ajmer in 1562 AD.

References: Abul Fazl, Akbarnama, Vol. II, pg 242; Nizamuddin Ahmad, Tabaqati Akbari II (Kolkata, 1931), pg 155, Abdul Qadir Badayuni, Tarikh-i-Badouni, II, tr. Lowe (Kolkata, 1924), pg. 46.

2. The hukm aims to institute an enquiry into the embezzlement of the revenues and usurpation of the jagir of Mudabbir Beg in the pargana of Chaupala in the sarkar of Sambhal by Suraj Mal Zamindar. It instructs the officer concerned to summon the ryot and after investigating into the matter, he should ensure that all the arrears are paid to Mudabbir Beg and that not a single fulus or jital is appropriated by Suraj Mal.

The Farman/Hukm/Edict of Wali Nimat Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begam

The original hukm is available in the Red Fort Museum of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. G. 51. {The readers who stay in Delhi, can visit and find this Farman preserved there.}


Let's see the hukm without further ado.

-> Invocation: Allah u Akbar (God is great)
{ This was a symbolical motto of Akbar. In 1575-76 AD, Akbar proposed to have this motto inscribed on coins and his seal. See this Link -> Click Here }

-> Seal - Mihrabi {pitcher shaped} 

-> Legend on Seal - Wali Nimat Begam, mother of Nurud Din Jahangir, the king

-> Unwan: the hukm of Maryam Zamani

Here is the Persian text of the hukm:

Original Persian Text of Hukm of Mariam-uz-Zamani

Here is a scan of the original hukm in Persian. The original scan of the hukm in the book from which the following scan was made is itself not clear.

Original Hukm of Mariam-uz-Zamani

And here is the English translation of the hukm, which has also been written below for easy reading and translation by translation tool.

English Translation of Hukm of Marium-uz-Zamani


The English translation of the hukm (as seen in the scan above) reads as:

"    Be it known to the asylum of dignity, perfect in wisdom...chieftainship, worthy of kindness and beneficence, Sayyid...expectant of favour, that whereas Mudabbir Beg, one of the servants and well-wishers of this court, has represented that the revenue authorities have assigned him a jagir in the pargana of Chaupala in sarkar Sambhal in lieu of his pay, but its assets have not been realised by his gumashtas and Suraj Mal, Zamindar, has embezzled and usurped them. (It is hereby ordered) that on learning the contents of the order of Her Majesty {this hukm}, he should summon the (riaya) before him and making enquiry into the matter get all the dues, the present revenue and arrears, paid to the aforesaid person (Mudabbir Beg), and he should not permit Suraj Mal to embezzle and usurp a single fulus or jital. Considering this imperative, he should bring the order to execution and do nothing contrary to it...on the date...the month of Tir of Ilahi year... "


1. Chaupala, modern Moradabad, was included in the sarkar of Sambhal in the suba of Delhi.       Reference: Moradabad District Gazetteer ed. H.R. Nevill, Allahabad, 1911, pg 150

2. Gumashtas: Literally appointee. Connotes an agent, a steward, a confidante, an officer employed by Zamindars to collect rents, by bankers to receive money, by merchants to carry on their affairs in places other than where they reside. Reference: H.H. Wilson, Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms of British India (London, 1855), pg 189

3. Zamindar: Literally landholder. Probably coined in India as early as the 14th century. Under the Mughals, the Zamindars were classified into 3 broad categories:
a. Autonomous chieftains ; b. Intermediary Zamindars ; c. Primary Zamindars
Reference: Irfan Habib, The Agrarian System of Mughal India, (Mumbai, 1963), pg 138; S. Nurul Hasan, The Position of the zamindars in the Mughal Empire in the Indian Economic and Social Review I, No. 11, April-June 1964, pp 107-119.

4. Riaya : Plural of raiyat. Literally, "hard at pasture" and connotes a peasant.

5. Fulus: Dams and half dams (adhelas) are called fulus on their inscriptions. A fulus was a copper coin. Reference: Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of Indian Coins in the British Museum - The Mughal Emperors, (London, 1892), pg lxxvi

6. Jital: A very old Indian coin that can be traced back to the early Delhi Sultanat. Under Akbar, jital was equivalent to 1/25 of a dam. The dam was divided only by accountants in their calculations. Reference: Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari I, pg 32; Yule and Burnell, pg 457

7. Tir: The 4th month of the ancient Persian solar calendar, which was introduced by Akbar as Ilahi era. Reference: V.S.Bendrey, Tarikhi Ilahi, (Poone, 1933), pp 3, 15

8. Ilahi year: The Tarikhi Ilahi was founded by Fathullah Shirazi and introduced by Akbar in 1584-85 AD. But it was ordered to be calculated from the year which commenced on 11 March, 1556 AD.
Note: Reference to the introduction of the Ilahi era was made in the post --> Link1. You can read more about Fathullah Shirazi at Link2.

9. The date on the hukm is not legible but it must be during Jahangir's reign.


From the seal and the unwan, we know that Maryam Zamani and Wali Nimat Begam (who is the mother of Jahangir) are one and the same.

Sujan Rai Bhandari, the chronicler of Aurangzeb's reign, mentions that Jahangir was born to the daughter of Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha. Reference: Suraj Rai Bhandari, Khulasatut Tawarikh, Delhi 1918, pg 374.
Note: This earlier post had also mentioned the above quoted reference made to Mariam-uz-Zamani by Sujan Rai Bhandari --> Link.

Abul Fazl writes that Akbar married the daughter of Raja Bharmal and sister of Bhagwan Das at Sambhar. Reference: Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, I, pg 322
Note: Refer to the post on the marriage anniversary of Akbar and Harka Bai --> Link.

Therefore, we can conclude that Wali Nimat Begam was the name/title given to the daughter of Raja Bhara Mal after her marriage with Akbar and it was probably after the birth of Prince Salim (later Jahangir) that the honorific of Maryam Zamani was conferred on her.

Above facts have been mentioned in the following 3 scans from the Meeting of Indian Historical Records Commission, Lahore, 1925. In this meeting this Farman of Mariam-Uz-Zamani was discussed. A person had purchased this farman, from someone whose identity was not revealed in this meeting.

Courtesy - GOI

Wali Nimat Begum was another title conferred upon Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum. It means "Gift of God / Saint ".

Farmans were issued by those Ladies who had Leading position in the Imperial Harem

Translation of Farman as published in this Paper

Concluding Remarks:

The following text is from the description of the book, Edicts from the Mughal Harem, by SAI Tirmizi, Deputy Director of Historical Archives, Government of India, 1972. The scan of the same is also given.

Scan of the Description of the Book, Edicts From the Mughal Harem

" Status enjoyed by women is the yardstick to assess the standard of civilization for any age or country. The Indian concept of womanhood is quite exalted but its manifestations have often been distorted. This is particularly true of the women in the Mughal harem. The position of the inmates of the harem needs to be re-examined today when we desire to use woman-power for development. Such efforts at re-examination are required to be backed by historical studies. An attempt has, therefore, been made in this book to focus attention on the hitherto somewhat neglected edicts issued from the Mughal harem. These edicts purport to lift up the veil of mystery that has enveloped the Mughal harem. While the Medieval Chroniclers were loath to write about the inmates of the harem, foreign travellers based their account on hearsay. The present book, therefore, attempts to examine the nature and extent of the influence exerted by queens and princesses. Their influence was confined not only to the court but encompassed different parts of the empire and affected collection of revenue, augmentation of cultivation, promotion of trade, appointments and dismissals of mansabdars, movements of troops and suppression of revolts. "

I am purposely not adding my personal views here because the above lines, and indeed the entire article, speak for themselves about the role of the Mughal ladies not only in the court but in the administration of the empire itself. Please feel free to share your views about the role played by the Mughal women in shaping and directing the progress of the empire as well as on the powers & active role played by Marium-uz-Zamani Begum, as seen from her hukm here.   

Thanks to Abhay for his inputs. 

The article has been posted under the Mughals section of this history BLOG.

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  1. This is an absolutely scintillating post. At the moment i just want to read this post again and again. So, i am not writing much about this topic here. Already, almost every detail has been covered in the post. The amount of effort which has gone in putting up these facts are quite visible in the post itself. Simply beautiful.!
    Along with the Farman, this post also gives a valid document to support the claim of another title of "Wali Nimat Begum" given to Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum. :)

  2. Abhay

    ya, two titles are confirmed here as also the fact that she was the mother of Salim.

    Just reading anything related to MUZ gives immense pleasure - :)

  3. What a post Radhika and Abhay .Amazing ,informative and yes a sheer delight to lovers of MUZ .Whatever related to her is for me greatest pleasure .Thanks .

  4. Ditto.So true .

  5. Phew... great post Radhika. Am enamoured at this superb post. Dont' have anything to say, as the text, the farmans talks by itself. TFS.


  6. Thank You so much Radhika and Abhay for enlightening us with ihis wonderful superlative post..Hats off to your hard work. The best part is you have included the sources with page Numbers, in case any one wants to Cross Check it..

  7. abhay n radhika...speechless reading 'tis post, as if a spell has been cast over me. cant write mor. thanks iz a meaningless word 4 'tis post. excellent effort dear.

  8. Abhay and Radhika, no words are enough to thank you both for the efforts taken to put together this article. What an amazing, priceless piece of information you have shared with thousands around the world. For all those who question the existence of Mariam-uz-Zamani, this farman comes as proof enough. It clearly reveals the respect she commanded and her importance in the Mughal court. My liking, respect and admiration for this Rajvanshi queen has doubled after reading this article.

    This article also clearly reveals the responsibility and importance of women of the Imperial harem. Their identities went way beyond the general perception of being just courtesans and concubines. I hope I do not sound too greedy when I say that I wish to read a description of the achievements of all the ladies of the Mughal Sultanate in a separate post. That would make a great article too.

  9. Thanks again Radhika, for putting together this brilliant write-up. I have read and re-read it several times and cannot believe that I am actually seeing a copy of the 'farman' issued by MUZ.

  10. Awesome post. A long awaited one but it is absolutely worthwhile. This should out a sock on some people whom are always trying to downplay MUZ role. Yes we do know that women's role in that era are considered insignificant. Even for someone in her stature and her extraordinary titles. Hence there are very little official evidence (written) to be found about her. Even in Akbarnama and Jahangir's memoir. Akbar wouldn't just give all that grand ttiles to her out any solid reason.

  11. Well said, Kembang. Esp the line which says that she paved the way, like many Mughal women before her, for later queens and princesses to rise in the Mughal court and create their own place.

  12. Beautifully said, Charu! :)

    One post is not enough to do justice to all the Mughal ladies. See how many posts were made only for Jahanara BEgum and Zeb-un-nisa Begum?

    More posts will be made on them in future. :)

  13. Iqra, I knew you will love this post and break your silence again :)

  14. Welcome, Sindhu :)

  15. Viji, true, the farman speaks for itself - nothing needs to be added :)

  16. Rightly said, Rashmi. :) Anything related to MUZ gives great pleasure!

  17. Abhay and Radhika, thanq verymuch for such beautiful postings. This blog is more and more interesting to read than to watch the show Jodha Akbar. I pray to God that somebody shd take this blog as base to make another show with title Jodha Akbar in future and with less NR. I will wait even if I become an aunty by that time and leisurely enjoy the show. May be i may become mentally matured and without any tension i view the serial as i get lot of knowledge from this blog about Mariam-uz-zamani and Akbar. But i expect there would be no forums and if at all they exist there would be no negativity and people also become aware of the truth and accept these two great royal characters lived centuries back. Am I sounding too much?

  18. Wow...absolutely wonderful post. Thanks for the info, Abhay and akka

  19. Mehak

    U and a TRP Aunty!!! ROFL

    Hope your wish for a new, more authentic show about Jodha Akbar comes true. :)

  20. Words fail me to do justice to this informative post. Truly magnificent.

  21. Thank you! Will wait to hear your views once you collect your thoughts, Donjas! :)

  22. Thanks for this post and information just gr888 Radhika and Abhay keep digging the information and posting we are thirsty for more and more information. See what watching a historical show does to us You have become researchers and we readers

  23. You're welcome Sunram. :)
    You are right in pointing out that this show has made all of us so "hungry" for information about AKbar and MUZ that there seems to be no end. We will keep sharing. You also plz keep sharing nuggets from your reading. :)

  24. Mehak,
    I re-iterate your sentiments. I would also want to see a remake of Jodha Akbar with all the royal aura and dignified treatment of leads. If there is show on JA in future you will find me there. Anyways, we all are still connected via this blog. :)

  25. This fantastic piece oh history that you have provided is just the tip of the iceberg. If MUZ concerned herself with mundane items of her subjects, then logic suggests that she had an interest in other important matters too.

    Add to that her trading interests. Dirk Collier in his book on Akbar says that MUZ had numerous long talks with Akbar about her trading endeavors.

    The picture that emerges is a woman well ahead of her time, deeply interested in politics and trade..

  26. Radhika,

    very beautiful n much awaited post.!The Farmaan of 16 th century was worth millions! Hats off to both of u fr taking so much trouble.:). This proves beyond doubt that Heer kunwari was conferred the title Wali- Nimat , she was the mother of Jahangir. This also proves that even Jahangir held her in high it seems to hv been issued in Jahangir's reign.
    The Farmaan also shows Mariam Zamaani was impartial in solving the issues as the order is in favour of a Muslim against the atrocities of Hindu.
    The incident also throws light on the fact that people used to feel free to approach directly to the highest authority in case of disputes.
    Much has already been discussed on the power of Mughal ladies in the harem.The Farmaan only adds luster to it.
    Thanks once again Radhika, Abhay fr this informative post. Incidently, Wali-ahad and Wali-Nimat, any connection in the meaning of common words?

  27. Geeta,
    You have made so many deductions in this post, and i think these should be added in the post above. Fantastic.!
    Don't you think, this farman speaks volumes about the facts related to MUZ ? I do not think there is connection between Wali Nimaat and Wali-ahad. :)

  28. Abhay Radhika, Amaging Amaging, feeling Dreamland, Which world write to use, not knows, Words feeling end.

    suppose MUZ is direct talking to All, or present here. This Post shows, How she was, precious in Mughal , Kingdom, Clearly shows, Her intelligencey, Her status, Her place her importance, or Her, Role in life of King (means Akbar ).

    If a person gets big responsibilties, to issu Pharmans, if these days comparsion, PM or presedint have that Authority. So how was she strong. i read in my books, when Akbar Hindu queen walks, her footsteps, , was so confident, or when she speaks, her eyes or Words speaks a volume.this post also indicates, 2 titles of Jodha, Mother of Jahangir, or wife of King,;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;But side by side, refelects, Her education, Akbar, vision of clearty, He knows, Her wife is extra aurdinery qualites, but she is came from, different relgion, so how was Akbar words strong, then nobody have no authority to deny, them. He gave that importance , Which Jodha deservs,, sometimes thoughts comes,How much tough for Jodha, for starting days, to co-realte, with different, community, different relgion, that time famals, adopting, cause of intercast, marraige, death, or she married, intercast King, or Her realtives , showed loyalty.

    All this she came out, Placing Own place, respectful manner,she got many titles,
    or this post shows, Her Pharman,;;;;;;;;;; song line recalling

    Joo bhee tumm hoo khuda kee kasm laajawab hoo.

    it also shows, Women power In harm, or Harm was also that place, where, also have a lot of work.But its clears, women knows Mangement.

    Seeing this pharman, feels, Jodha was MBA,+ Adocate, Strong,Kind nature, busness women , because shipping busness, she was great role.
    recalling one more song line;

    Abb kya missal duu mee tumahere shahab kee.

    i have book Ganga kee Dhara, written by Gurudat,

    written, page 482, Akbar only relax on jodha Bai place.jodha listens him shlok of Geeta, ;;;;;;;;;;;it shows, Akbar was interest on Geeta.

    Kind nature, point, when Akbar was 22, Both went to meet, Guru amardas, they not wore shoes, Jodha, blessed, by, Amardas,she will give birth to mughal vaaris,
    Written words (jodha nee apna kangan, guru mahraj kee charno, mee, rakh diya, or boli, use this for Kind work, Akbar donated land for Gurudawara. written page 283

    So I think, Both couple was full of qualties,Seeing this post feeling coming, both
    were made compliting to eachother.

    Thanks a lot for this post

  29. Abhay,
    Thank u fr ur kind words :) Yes! certainly, the farmaan shows that MUZ though was very dear to Akbar, she just did not stop at relishing the post, but took keen interest in the distress of people, may be in this way she wanted to share her husband's burden. Also she herself must be a woman of justice, chaste genuinely interested in the wellbeing of the people.

  30. Donjas

    How we all wish to see MUZ doing trade / handling haj business and having long talks with Akbar about the same!

    Well said - what a dynamic woman - she would be ahead of time even in today's age :)

  31. Sunram

    Your appreciation means a lot :)

    Definitely the one positive of the show is that it has got us interested in finding the real history behind Akbar and MUZ. :) Let's thank Ekta for this.

  32. Geeta

    Wonderful words of appreciation for MUZ! And great deductions from the farman. :))

    MUZ was really a woman of justice and very interested in welfare of people. See how she also got wells / baolis made for people. :)

  33. Ayushi,

    As usual, you have spelt the essence of the post clearly. :)

    TFS the stories from the book! It was wonderful to know about MUZ reciting the Geeta to Akbar. :)

  34. thanks radhika, in this book many points, which i own reading first once jodha dassi name bhaagrthee, she is very loyal to jodha, her reciting Geeta shlock, not liking by, rukayia, abdual fazal,
    or hamida name is also mentioing.
    but written also, once jodha got ill, then MS arranged, Mahamrintgo, path for jodha,;;;;;or jalal gave this permission.

    once place wriiten, Akbar respects jodha lot, he says, if i not respect her, no body will not respect, her.

    many more interesting points reading.

  35. Good job Abhay...It shows that farman was issued during the reign of Jahangir..She was equally powerful during the reign of Salim..What rubbish JA propagate..Can you throw light on the year of farman and the name of the book which you are showing?

  36. Ayushi

    Pls continue to share :)

  37. More from Edicts from the Mughal Harem:

    "This comparitive freedom given to the consorts and princesses of the Mughal harem inculcated in them a greater sense of dignity and honour with the result that they exercised no mean influence on the court and participated in the politics of the state and exercised considerable authority as is evident from the edicts issued from time to time by Hamida Banu Begam, Maryam Zamani, Nur Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal, Nadira Begum and Jahan Ara."

  38. Ayushi, Do u mind to share your book Ganga kee Dhara, written by Gurudat. I'd like to know details of Akbar and Jodha more and more.....Any one, can u please do share also about Akbar's physical appearance. I read somewhere that he was handsome, tall with fair complexion (broad shoulder, etc) he was not short at all?

  39. Hi Mirah, if that points i read sure i will share, but i am going to be busy coming some days.i think, Abhay also help this point, because he has enough, knowledge about history

  40. Check the comments on this page for details on Maham Begum and Babur. :)

  41. beautiful details radhika. thanks 4 sharing. maham begum ws noted influencial lady.

  42. Iqra

    Pls see this comment with details on Aurangzeb's marriage with Dilras Banu Begum. Am sure you will love it. :)

  43. Ayushi,
    Really these are fantastic details. I liked reading them. If possible, please share the picture also of this, so that more people can read it. Some readers from Indonesia are particularly keen in knowing about this. :)

  44. Ayushi,
    Can you explain this point. About Mahamrintgo ?
    What is the meaning. ? :))
    And, Hamida not liking Jodha's Geeta's Shlok ?
    But, Hamida herself had her copy of Ramayana, then why she will do this. Anyways, plz share more. :))

  45. Thank you very much. Though, this post is written by Radhika. The year of this farman is not readable. The book name is Edicts from Mughal Harem. :)

  46. Ayushi, Abhay,

    Some people want to know this on Twitter also - if Hamida Banu was really against Jodha's worship. Pls confirm. :))

  47. thnks radhika. lovely details. read it b4 in offline mode.

  48. Mirah,
    Akbar was not very tall.
    But had broad shoulders and was of Timurid complexion. :)

  49. Abhay after so many days visting Blog, busy, Abhay which i read wrote, somedays more busy, after i will try to write, sorry it was Maha mrityunjaya mantra, Path arranged by MS,Three person not liked, this, in this book, No pic's, Novel shape book written, not remembering page, Salim +MB marriage also define this book.

  50. Thanks for your reply Ayushi,
    So, it looks like. that book is not completely historical, as it mixes some fiction as well, because you said it is a novel ?? :) Please keep sharing details.

  51. Abhay, Yes its Novel, but i not read, fiction world, anywhere writer wrote he tried, to wrote real circumstances that time,
    in this book, Ruk +BK, some points, Salim MB marraige, points
    Once, Some plotting against Akbar, which Akbar found not sucessful. I not know this, is real facts yes or not,
    So every incident have some pages, Salim speaked sorry to Akbar, his deeds, etc etc, so this book this type of incidence, mentioned.

  52. Hmm....
    Ayushi....Please keep sharing your readings when ever you get something new , on this blog. It is always a good experience to read new incidents from different sources. Thanks . :D