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Thursday, February 5, 2015

453 years of Marriage of Akbar and Mariam-Uz-Zamani | Part - I


This is Part-1 of the special post on the occasion of the 453rd marriage anniversary of Mughal Emperor Akbar and the Princess of Amer - Harka Bai/Mariam-Uz-Zamani. The marriage took place in Sambhar (Rajputana) on 6th February, 1562.

So, decided to write a DETAILED post related to this event, which defined the future of this nation. This was not only a marriage of 2 individuals, but also a synthesis of two different cultures, religions and races. Such alliances between different communities happened before also, but this one was different from all of them and the magnitude of its impact was unprecedented. It was to change the course of the history of Hindustan. The beauty lies in the fact that the possibility of such an alliance was very remote but it still happened and left an indelible imprint on the annals of Hindustani history.

Since this is a VERY LONG Post, i am providing an index of the contents to act as a mind map.


This is the present post.

I. Political Events from 1500 to 1562
     - First Battle of Panipat + End of Delhi Sultanate & Estb. of Mughals(1526)
     - Battle of Khanua + Death of Rana Sanga & Prithviraj Kachwaha(1527)
     - Death of Babur(1530), Interruption by Sher Shah Suri's Empire(1540-55)
     - Birth of Maharana Pratap(1540) & Birth of Akbar(1542)
     - Marriage of Akbar and MUZ (1562)

II. Background of this Marriage - Events in Amer till 1562
     - Death of Raja Prithviraj Kachwaha(1527)
     - Father of Kunwar Suja, PuranMal comes to throne(died in 1534)
     - Delicate Political Situation & first contact of Mughals-Rajputs(1534)
     - Uncle of Suja becomes next ruler(till 1537), succeeded by his son(till 1547)
     - Raja BharMal comes to throne(1548-74)
     - Challenge to maintain balance with Mughal-Rajput-Afghan power equation
     - BharMal summoned by Akbar to Delhi(1557)
     - Problems created by Kunwar Suja and Sharif-ud-din(1556-1561)
     - BharMal son/nephews taken hostage by Sharif-ud-din who makes HEAVY demands(1561)
     - Bharmal appeals for peace with Chugtai Khan(1561-62)
     - Chugtai Khan introduces BharMal's nephew to Akbar(1562)
     - Akbar insists on "personal" homage, hence brother of BharMal also meets Akbar
     - At last, Finally, BharMal meets Akbar with Chugtai Khan(1562)
     - Decide to have a marital alliance, Akbar fixes Sambhar as the venue
     - Marriage on 6th February, 1562

III. Account of Raja BharMal and Marriage of Akbar with Raja Bharmal's Daughter, from Maasir
     - clan of Raja BharMal
     - loyalty and valor impresses Akbar
     - marriage on 6th February, 1562
     - appointment to high offices


This is about the second Part. Link to the Post: Click Here

IV. Account with minute details of this marriage from Akbarnama
     - Akbar visits Ajmer
     - Meeting with BharMal
     - Sharif-ud-din shows "hesitation" in releasing son/nephews of BharMal despite orders of Akbar
     - Marriage in Sambhar on 6th February, 1562
     - Man Singh and Bhagwan Das taken to Agra
     - BharMal made a mansabdar of 5000

V.  Interesting details from Scanned Horoscope of Akbar from Akbarnama 
     - mentions he WILL marry native princesses from India and more.....
     - mentions about sons from them
     - talks about increasing relish of friendship and love
     - grandchildren

VI. Foundations of this marriage laid down by Humayun before his death
     - paper from the Indian History Congress
     - Humayun advised by King of Iran to conciliate with Rajputs & Afghans
     - Humayun advises Akbar NOT to use force but conciliate with Rajputs

VII. Rajputana records of this marriage
     - wrong date of birth of Harka Bai on Internet
     - Harka Bai was engaged twice before her marriage to Akbar
     - her fiance died in a war

VIII. Views of eminent historian Late Dr. B.P. Saxena about this marriage 
     - no other marriage in medieval history was as happy & fruitful politically
     - new dawn in Indian politics

IX. Views of eminent biographer historian Dr. Lal about this marriage 
     - views about Akbar
     - DETAILED views about Harka Bai & her equation with Akbar


Now, starting with the Main Post | Part-1

In order to understand the "gravity" of this marriage, it is necessary to know the reasons which led to this alliance. The reasons have very deep roots, which runs 3 generations back. I am listing them here. The timeline is very important to understand the significance of underlying events.

I. Remember these political events & chronology from 1500 to 1562, then proceed :

1. First Battle of Panipat : 21st April 1526, between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi

> Babur won, End of Delhi Sultanate. Babur obtains major part of North India except Rajputana. The only reckoning force to match him was that of Rana Sanga.


2. Battle of Khanua : 17th March, 1527 : between Babur and Rana Sanga of Chittor
> Babur won. Rana Sanga died in 1527 from the injuries suffered in this Battle.

Rana Sanga was a man who fought with 1 eye - 1 hand - 1 leg in the battle. His body had 80 scars which he "earned" on the battle-field. In his autobiography, Babur calls Rana Sanga as "one the greatest kings of Hindustan". As great "warriors", i have regard for both these men. I must say both were a match to each other.

There are many reasons, but 2 reasons are prominently given for Babur's success:

i. Active use of gunpowder for the first time in Hindustan. Babur lost many battles in Central Asia due to use of gun-powder against him, he learnt from those defeats, and carefully applied those same strategies in this battle against his opponent. Experience came in handy.
ii. Betrayal of Rana Sanga by one of his chiefs during the course of battle.

Fate had it's own plans, because after 2 generations, their grandsons, Maharana Pratap and Akbar registered their names in history with the story of their long struggle(1550's to 1597).

3. Death of Babur : 1530 . Mughal Empire was in hands of Humayun now. There were interruptions by Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah Suri had driven Humayun out of Hindustan in 1540. Till 1555, the Sur dynasty ruled. Humayun regained the empire in 1555. But soon died in January, 1556.


4. Birth of Maharana Pratap : 1540 {Rana Sanga was his grand father}
Birth of Akbar : 1542 {Babur was his grand father}


5. Marriage of Akbar and Harka Bai : February 6, 1562.

 II. Back Ground of this Marriage:

The important kingdoms present in Rajputana at the start of the 16th Century(1500's) were that of Mewar, Marwar and Amer. Amer was the smallest of these kingdoms but commanded the maximum revenue, owing to its flourishing trade and well-developed market comprising various kinds of talented artisans.

Death of Prithviraj Kachwaha

Raja Prithviraj Kachwaha reigned in Amer from 17th January, 1503 to 4th November, 1527. He fought along with Rana Sanga of Chittor in the fatal battle-field of Khanua (see point #2 above in the political events section), where he sustained serious injuries to which he succumbed after 6 months and passed away. Amer was weakened after this battle, like Mewar/Chittor.

Amer and Mewar fought together in this war.

Prithviraj had many sons. Among them were > Raja PuranMal, Raja Bhim Singh, and Raja Bharmal. On his death, his eldest son Raja PuranMal ascended the throne. He ruled from 5th November, 1527 to 19th January, 1534.

Reign of Raja Puranmal

During the reign of Raja PuranMal, a lot of changes occurred in the political corridors-

a. Mewar/Chittor was weakened after the death of Rana Sanga in 1527, as he was succeeded by a not so strong ruler for sometime (Virkamaditya and later Vanveer, Rana Udai Singh was a minor, then). Seizing an opportunity, the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah attacked and reduced Chittor after the death of Rana Sanga. (A massive Jauhar took place this time. ) Earlier, he had been defeated many times by Rana Sanga. Next on his line was Raja PuranMal of Amer.

b. Rao Maldeo Rathore of Marwar ascended the throne in 1532. He began his rule with aggressive expansionist policy on all fronts. According to Tabaqqat-i-Akbari (II, Pg-104), Rao Maldeo "made himself the greatest ruler of Hind" by his conquests. He also seized 4 districts of Amer.

c. Amer had a geographically insecure location. It was to the south of Delhi and was in danger of attack from there. In the east, Rao Maldeo was pursuing expansionist policy, and, in the south, Bahadur Shah was present. All these were very strong rulers. The danger to Amer was from various fronts.

The First Blood Drawn - Fate brings Kachawahas & Mughals on Same Page:

Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, was becoming dangerous. He had reduced Chittor and Mandu. Now he was eyeing Rajputana (read Amer, as it was near to his reach), Agra and Delhi. His strength was huge. 

This map shows the targets of the ruler of Gujarat. After Chittor, he wanted Amer, Delhi and Agra. Note the arrows in the figure.

Under these circumstances, the following events happened (from Akbarnama I, pg 219) :-

a. Bahadur Shah gave shelter to some Mughal rebels and refused Humayun's demand for returning them. 
b. Not only this, he gave "public honors to the rebel". 
c. He also encouraged Alaudin-ud-Din Lodi, the son of the founder of Lodi Dynasty - Bahlol Lodi - to attack Delhi. 
{See, point#1 in the political events section, Babur had defeated Ibrahim Lodi and overthrown the Lodi Dynasty from Delhi; this Alaudin-ud-Din Lodi was a surviving son of Bahlol Lodi and the paternal uncle of Ibrahim Lodi, as Ibrahim Lodi was a grandson of Bahlol Lodi. }
d. He sent Tatar Khan, the son of Ala-ud-din Lodi, to attack Bayana with a force of 40,000 cavalry among others.
e. Tatar Khan was earlier sent to the Fort of Ranthambore, from where he obtained many soldiers.
f. He sent Ala-ud-din Lodi to Kalinjar.
g. He sent Burhan-ul-Mulk to Nagore with instructions to divide his army and march onto Punjab.

The Fort of Bayana was situated exactly mid-way between Agra (the Mughal capital) and Amer (the Kachawaha Rajputs' capital). It was clear that, along with Delhi and Agra, the target was Amer also. 
In this situation, Raja PuranMal decided to fight against Tatar Khan. From the Mughal side, Humayun dispatched forces under his brothers Hindal and Askari along with his cousin Nasir Mirza among others.  
Raja PuranMal and Mughal forces fought against Tatar Khan together. Tatar Khan captured the fort of Bayana and moved further. A fierce battle was fought, ultimately Tatar Khan fell, but Raja PuranMal also fell in this battle. 

This was the first point of contact between Mughals and Kachawahas. Note that this temporary alliance was politically driven, as a joint attack on Afghans was in favor of both of them. No further contact is heard of between these two clans in the near future.

Events before the Reign of Raja Bharmal:

After the death of Raja PuranMal in 1534, his younger brother Raja Bhim Singh became the ruler. Raja PuranMal had a son, Kunwar Suja, who was a minor at that time and, hence, was not made the ruler.

Raja Bhim Singh reigned from 20th January, 1534 to 22nd July, 1537. He was succeeded by his elder son, Raja Ratan Singh who reigned from 23rd July, 1537 to 15th May, 1548. For 16 days, his step-brother Askaran Singh ruled but was removed by the nobles. Finally, on June 1, 1548 Raja Bharmal was made the King of Amer.

A Look at the Reign of Raja BharMal:

He came to the throne in 1548. Till 1556, he ruled peacefully keeping a low profile, without any major problems, and maintained cordial relations with his neighbors.

We know that Sher Shah Suri had driven Humayun out of Hindustan in 1540. Till 1555, the Sur dynasty ruled. Humayun regained the empire in 1555. But soon died in January, 1556. Akbar was then a boy of 13 years.

In this peaceful reign of BharMal, a turbulent event happened in 1556. Haji Khan Pathan, a former officer of Sher Shah Suri, attacked Narnaul and drove out the Turki commander Majnu Khan Qaqshal from the Fort.

Haji Khan Pathan was routed out of Chittor by Rana Udai Singh, when he attacked that place in 1556.

Raja BharMal was not in a position to take sides. He was keeping "amiable" relations with Haji Khan Pathan because Rao Maldeo Rathore of Marwar was on a fierce expansionist spree (we read this above) during this time. Haji Khan Pathan was like an ally for Raja BharMal.

But, Raja BharMal was also a friend of Majnu Khan Qaqshal (as per Ain-i-Akbari). He secured peaceful surrender of the Fort and also arranged for safe passage of Majnu Khan Qaqshal from Narnaul to Delhi. In short, BharMal saved the life of Majnun Khan Qaqshal at the hands of Haji Khan Pathan.

Meanwhile, a 13 year old Akbar was engaged in the Second Battle of Panipat against Samrat HemaChandra Vikramaditya(Hemu), along with his mentor Bairam Khan, which he won. After the conclusion of this battle, Majnun Khan narrated the tales of "loyalty" of Raja Bharmal in saving his life, to a young Akbar. Hearing this, Akbar summoned Raja Bharmal to the court (December 1556/Early 1557).

Abu'l Fazl says in Akbarnama, Vol.-2, Pg-70 
Majnun Khan Qaqshal represented to H.M. the excellent loyalty of Raja BharMal which he had shown at the siege (of Narnaul). A gracious order was issued for his attendance and the Raja obeyed the command and was rewarded, by kissing the ground of obedience. On one day when robes of honour had been presented to the Raja and to his sons and other relatives, and they had been brought to the Court to receive their dismissal, His Majesty was mounted on a mast elephant which in its intoxication was rushing in every direction. People were all going to one side. Once it ran towards the Rajputs, but as they held fast to their loyalty they remained standing. This steadiness pleased the lofty glance of H.M. the Shahenshah, and he made inquiries about the Raja and said with his mystery-interpreting tongue - “We will rear you.”* This came to pass as will be described hereafter.

* - The Persian version contains the word > "Nihal Khwahim Kard" / also called "We will plant you". The translator of Akbarnama writes that > these words from the mystery-interpreting tongue of Akbar probably refer to his inter(clan)-marriage which shall occur later (with the daughter).


Rebellion of Kunwar Suja:

The years (1557-1562) after this were full of distress for Raja Bharmal. Kunwar Suja, the son of former King Raja PuranMal (died 1534), had grown up and laid a claim to the throne, which was successively occupied by his Uncle Bhim Singh (1534-37), then his cousin Ratan (1537-48), and finally by his 'old' uncle BharMal on the insistence of nobles (1548-74). 

On being denied the throne, Kunwar Suja left Amer and took shelter with his mother's Rathore family and contacted Sharif-ud-din, the Mughal Governor of Ajmer and Nagore. Sharif-ud-din was politically very powerful at that time, as he was the brother-in-law of Akbar and was also favored by Maham Anga. Kunwar Suja and Sharif-ud-din arrived at a settlement. Sharif referred to Suja as "elder brother". The Mirza led a huge army against Raja BharMal, who was not able to resist the onslaught. Sharif-ud-din took hostages from Raja BharMal's family.

Akbarnama (II,241) says > 

"A fixed contribution was laid upon him, and his son Jagannath, Raj Singh the son of Askaran, and Khangar Singh the son of Jagmal, who were the Raja's brothers' sons, were taken as hostages."

A price was set upon the heads of the above-mentioned captives and the Raja was required to pay a fixed tribute. This happened in 1561. The issue did not end here.

I have not found many Rajputana accounts. But from what i have found, it says only this much that > Sharif-ud-din was NOT satisfied with the above settlement and he made preparations for another march on Amer the next year(1562). Akbarnama (II, 241) also mentions the same point as it is, without the details/reasons of such actions of Sharif-ud-din.! It simply says - "The Mirza then went off to Ajmer and Nagor, and this year it was his fixed intention to collect troops and to extirpate the family."


III. The Maasir (I, pg 409/410/411) also copies the same thing from Akbarnama

I am posting some scans here with more details. Basically, this is an account of how Raja BharMal met Akbar and the story thereafter. Among the Kachwaha Rajputs of Amer, there were two sections - Rajawat and Shaikhawat. Raja Bharmal belonged to the Rajawat section. As i mentioned in the starting of this post above, the text also mentions that Amer was a small kingdom in comparison to Marwar, but superior in productiveness/revenue generation. 

It talks about the ascendancy of the Amer family in the court of Akbar. Just after his daughter's marriage, Raja BharMal was "directly" made a mansabdar of 5000.! {See the highlighted part in the scan below} Normally, people progressed slowly and steadily through promotions to this rank, but he was directly given this rank by Akbar. More can be read below.


{The quality of this scan is not so good as the text itself was very rough.}


Map of Rajputana showing various important places..

Continued in Part-2....
It contains the DETAILED description of marriage of Akbar and Heer Kunwari.
Link : 453 Years of Marriage of Akbar and Mariam-Uz-Zamani | Part-2

This article has been posted under the Mughals(Akbar) and Jodha Akbar section of history_geek's BLOG.

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  1. Abhay

    I am simply overwhelmed. Don’t have words to express my
    feelings on seeing this post. It is SUPERLATIVE! Thanks so much for this
    beautiful tribute to the beautiful couple, Akbar-MUZ. :D

    This post reads like a brief history of the Mughals and
    Rajputs right from Babur/Rana Sanga to Akbar’s time. You have covered
    everything in exquisite detail. I cannot imagine that anything could have
    missed your eye and been left out.

    I want to read this post over and over again before I ask
    anything / discuss. It is so full of rich details. But it’s wondrous to know
    this marriage happened due to the far-sighted vision of Humayun and Akbar who
    thought it better to conciliate the native Rajputs so that their Mughal empire
    could be established / consolidated more easily. Rather than going in for
    aggressive, expensive and unpredictable wars.

    Looking ahead to read part 2. :)

  2. Abhay

    Thanks for adding the maps, esp the 2nd one! This is the first time I am able to understand the structure of the Rajputana states with respect to each other. :)

    I feel you have put in tremendous amount of research for this post, like you did for Akbar MUZ kids post and the MUZ -Forgotten Enigma post. :) Take a break now - you deserve it!

  3. I just got a chance to read this. Thank you so much Abhay for writing this very informative post. I have learned a lot today,

  4. This makes for some amazing reading Abhay. Thanks. BTW what is maasir? are you talking about Auranzeb's biography?

  5. So, Today is Anniversary of Akdha,, Abhay not read post.

    6, Feb, 1562, Two different personalites, United ,By destiny, Name Was Akbar +Jodha, or they lived life, as a Couple, or Their name, was written, in History, Which Height, Coming, years, or Past years,They are Alived, Even in Today, or, Coming generation also will recall, Them A "TRUELOVER" or, Soul Mate.

    Acc to Numerology, 6 digit is no of Love, Venus, is the, Head of 6 No, So wedding day, Love was add in both life, by Destiny. .

    Dedicating a poem to our Akdha.

    Doo Sitree, Jammi, par uattere,

    Bandh Gaye, Naseeb see,

    Aadder (respect ) see Juda Ristha,

    Dee Gaya Dilo koo Dastak,

    Dastak Badal Gayi Payar Mee,

    Nazaro kaa Payar, Badd, (increase ) Gaya,

    Ruh Takk Paonuch, Gaya,

    ruh ekk hoo gayi.

    Raha naa, Doosre kaa Bhav,

    Prem hee, Prem thaa,

    Naa thaa jiskaa Koi Ant,

    Chuntiya thee Bahut,

    Par voo Hate Nahi,

    Ant Badal Gaya Anant Mee,

    Anant kee hee yee Dastan,

    Akdha naam mee chipi hee inki Pahchhan Inki pachaan.

    Padhna chahte, hoo too Pado.

    Abhay, Likh Raha hee Dastan.

    History Geek bhee Kahete hee Isee,,

    Kar Raha hee Kathin Kamm Kathin Kamm.

    Thanks a lot of Abhay, Words feeling, less. So many post i have to read.

  6. Cause of Akdha, Marriage day writing a song;

    Do sitaro ka jamin par hai milan aaj kee rat
    Muskurata hain ummido ka chaman aaj kee rat
    Rang layee hain mere dil kee lagan aaj kee rat
    Saree duniya najar aatee hain dulhan aaj kee rat

    Husnwale teree duniya me koyee aaya hain
    Tere didar kee hasarat bhee koyee laya hain
    Tod de, tod de, parade ka chalan aaj kee rat

    Jinase milane kee tamanna thee wahee aate hain
    Chand tare meree raaho me bichhe jate hain
    Chumata hain mere kadmo ko gagan aaj kee rat.

    Abhay sorry, i write too much songs, on your Blog.

  7. Wonderful information Sunram. Thanks for sharing

  8. Sunram, TFS :) It is delightful to know that this library will be renovated and opened to public soon. ASI should take it over and restore it.

    I wish someone would restore Zeb's library in Tees Hazari, Delhi.

  9. Beautiful poem, Ayushi :)

  10. This is an amazing post Abhay :) You have really summarized all the facts in a very crisp manner...a lovely read indeed. And thanks for adding the Maps...those were very helpful for understanding...the second one looks pretty old map as it says Rajputana instead of Rajasthan...

    Again hats off to your hard work buddy...

  11. Abhay,

    Thank you for the post! I will read it carefully and meticulously and will leave a long comment later! :)

    However, I have heard that MUZ-Akbar actually have two anniversaries; one on the 6th of February and the other one a few days later, after they had a nikah ceremony. Am I correct?

  12. Abhayyyyy!!!
    what a detailed post yaar!!! loooved reading it :D :D u know when it comes to AkDha how crazy I am :P anyway, it feels amazing to think that their love and marriage is remembered/celebrated even after 453 years! wow! this is called a true eternal love story of two eternal soul-mates.
    accha ek sawal, as the show gave us a scene where AkDha marrying in Islamic way in Agra...kya yeh sach mein hua tha?

  13. hi abhay!
    wonderful post..Thank you so much for keeping the legend of heer kawar and akbar alive..
    i went to agra recently and this time i made a point to visit the tomb of mariam is hardly included in any tourists list of places to be driver told me he had never seen the place..but i was really insistent. although asi has made an effort, the place still reeks of dereliction..stuff like so&so loves so&so kind of graffiti is scratched all over the place...there are no made me really sad..people dont know anything about the magnificence of the person whose remains rested inside..i went to akbars tomb too...
    anyway..happy aniversary to HK and akbar..

  14. Both the post are superbly Fantabulous and the discussion too

  15. Thanks Radhika, I wrote meaning of poem here,I try to write, Akdha journey in this Poem.,

  16. Abhay, Amaging post, i am reading again again.Somedays Before, i saw Epic channel, Rana, Sanga, Placed in History, 1o warriors, Among warriors, he got 2 Rank, cause of defeatness, His close friend cheated him, Badly,

  17. Hi Gauri

    So good to hear from you :) Pls share any photos you may have of MUZ's tomb. It is really sad to see how little we respect historical legends the way we spoil those beautiful monuments.:(

  18. Tamy and Sam

    Both of you asked the same Q - whether Akbar and MUZ had a nikah in Agra. It's an interesting Q and I too look fwd to its answer :)

  19. This is one amazing post for our royal couple.The wealth of information that you have unearthed makes for a fascinating read. I was particularly interested in the sequence of events leading up to the marriage.

    Thank you.

  20. Preeti,
    You're welcome. :) I have been told that Masir was compiled during Aurangzeb's reign from the earlier Persian chronicles. This one is different from his biography. :)

  21. Rasika,
    I am glad this post was helpful and interesting read for you. :D Hope you enjoyed reading part-2 also. :)
    Yes, the maps were added after a special request from a friend. :-P

  22. Samanika,
    Do read completely and give your wonderful LOONG reviews for sure. About the Nikah ceremony, i have been told they have two wedding dates.

  23. Tamy,
    I am well aware of your craze for JA for more than 1 year now. :-P
    I knew you would love this post. So, i was correct. :)
    About the Nikah ceremony, i don't know, though i have been told they have two wedding dates. :)

  24. Ayushi,
    First of all, thanks for the above two posts which are really nice and no need to be sorry for writing songs on the blog. :D
    Plz feel free to write anything. I liked the poem you wrote above, really thankful for it.
    Yes, Rana Sanga was cheated in the war, by one of his associates. That was also one of the reasons for his defeat.
    Is EPIC Channel showing Rana Sanga also ? Which show ?

  25. Thanks Niranjana.
    And thanks to everyone here for appreciating this post. Sindhu, Gauri, Radhika, Donjas, Sunram, Preeti, Rasika, Tamy, Samanika, and everyone.. :)

  26. Gauri,
    Its sad to know about the state of her tomb. Though, ASI has woken up now, but it is late. Still better late than never. If possible, please do share some pics with us. :)

  27. Abhay, thanks for liking the Poem,Or i can write, too much songs more,Lol,After reading title, My Mind sudden click,Songs, Or sometimes Poems.

    Epic channel, i not know programme name, But they were giving, 10 warriors, Warrior Awards. Through Pic's they were showing their story.

    i missed last sevens, But 2 No was Rana Sanga,Showed pic,He was fighting, without one eye, or one leg, or one hand.I think i heard this, when he knows, his friend cheated him, cause of some gold Asrfi;s he says, Cause of you, Rajputana, history will be change now.maybee he was also killed by Rana Sanga.
    no 1, or No 3, MP, PC,,Forgeting which one got 1, MP or PC, but in both 1 is 3 or one is 1 no.