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Sunday, October 5, 2014

Why did Akbar attack Chittor ? | Marathon Series Part-1



Hi friends,


A lot of you have asked many questions pertaining to the Chittor War. Hence, I am starting a "New Series of Posts" to discuss the Battle of Chittor, which happened between the Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar/Chittorgarh and Mughal Emperor Akbar, in 1567-68.


Next Posts in this Series:

2. Preparation of Rajputs - Battle of Chittor | Part-2
 
3. Battles BEFORE the Battle of Chittor - At Kumbhalgarh, Rampur, Udaipur, Mandalgarh | Part-3
 
4. ACTUAL Struggle between Mughal & Rajput Forces - Course of War BEFORE Jauhar and Saka| Battle of Chittor Part-4 | With explained Portraits from Akbarnama

5. Mughal Record of Jauhar of Rajput Women & Saka of Rajput Warriors at 3rd Siege of Chittor(1567-68) + Mughal Victory Followed by Massacre of Rajput Civilians | Battle of Chittor Part-5 | With Portraits from Akbarnama & personal pictures of Chittor Fort

6. DETAILED Rajput Record of Jauhar, Saka & Massacre of Rajputs at 3rd Siege of Chittor(1567-68) | Description of Rajput Warriors & OLD pictures of Chittor Fort | Battle of Chittor Part-6

7. Fatehnama-i-Chittor, Comparison & Pictures of Mughal-Rajput Weapons, Assessment of Akbar and Maharana Pratap, Old Portraits of Udaipur & Path for the Future Struggle of Mughals - Mewar | LONG Detailed Concluding Assessment..Last Post on Battle of Chittor Part 7

History of Jaimal and Patta | HEROes of the 3rd Siege of Chittor


In this particular post, i am giving the "explanations" offered by court chroniclers of Akbar, for this war. I have given my explanations as well in between..



I. The explanation in Akbarnama : By Abu'l Fazl. 

Abu'l Fazl was the official biographer of Akbar. He has narrated a "STORY" to ' explain ' the Chittor War. I have taken the following lines from - "The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Vol.-2, Page-462 onwards(Beveridge, Sr-910, ASB, Calcutta,1907)"..

Following is the Text from Akbarnama-> {I have explained the text in between, and given my explanations in purple color.}

""
=> At the time when the capital was made resplendent by the lights of his justice, and when the army was not yet rested from its labours, the news came of the rebellion of the sons of Muhammad Sultan Mirza and of their scattering the dust of dissension in the province of Malwa. When they had withdrawn their heads from bearing the burden of obedience to their spiritual and temporal king, and had become vagabonds in the land of destruction, they, after long wandering with little result, had found Malwa empty and had gone there.
{
The sons of Sultan Mirza had rebelled and when they found Malwa empty, they settled here.
}


=> Now the laws of sovereignty did not admit of delay in such matters. Accordingly the Shahinshah of the universe and the sage of the time resolved to dispose of this business by his own ripe understanding, and by giving attention under the guise of inatten­tion, and care under the screen of carelessness. He in appearance overlooked the thing, and in reality applied his genius to putting down the disturbance.
{
Akbar decided to proceed cleverly. On the "pretext" of hunting he started his march. Infact this was used on most occasions. Even while marching towards Gujarat, he proceeded on the pretext of hunting.
}


=> On the day of 30 August 1567, he set out to hunt in Bari(a place), where he had often enjoyed himself in hunting deer with cheetas, in order that the loyal and devoted leaders might come without the notoriety of being sent for, while others, either their servants or not, would, seeing that there was no prohibi­tion, readily assemble in order to pay their respects.
When men should have quickly assembled, a number of them would be picked out and sent on this duty. 
{
Abu'l Fazl says that, without being called, the followers/fighters, were supposed to collect, on such a move. From here they were sent to Malwa, to quell the revolt of sons of Sultan Mirza.
}


=> With this judicious idea he set out from the capital, and, having encamped at Bari, he went on hunting towards Dholpur and Gwaliar which are in the direction of Malwa. The officers and other servants turned the face of hope towards the camp and arrived in crowds. If all the faithful servants of the court, who were associated with hunting, should be added up, they would be enough to conquer a world; if all the loyal heroes were gathered together, who could count them? and if the servants of the servant were also collected, who could estimate their numbers?
{
It is basically a display of power. By showing more number of followers, it was expected that the Chiefs who had NOT submitted to Akbar, till then,  should also submit NOW. Further, Abu'l Fazl mentions that a HUGE army was collected by Akbar in the process. Remember that, Akbar started for war, on the pretext of hunting..!!
}



=> When Dholpur(a place in Rajasthan, South of Agra) had been made the camping ground, Sakat Singh, son of Rana Udai Singh, was in attendance on the victorious stirrup. His Majesty, either from pleasantry, or in order that the presump­tuous rebels of Malwa might be led by the circumstance into the slumber of negligence, said to him that though most of the land­holders and great men of India had paid their respects, yet the Rana had not as yet done so, and that therefore he proposed to march against him and punish him. His Majesty also asked what service the prince would render in this case. On one occasion he spoke at large about these matters with the prince, and the latter made hypocriti­cal proffers..

{
Here Abu'l Fazl tell us that, the son of Rana Udai Singh was present with him at Dholpur. Akbar asks him for service, as he wants to punish Rana Udai Singh, for he has NOT yet accepted Mughal rule. Sakat Singh does NOT gives any assurances to help Akbar against his father. Note that, Abu'l Fazl calls this a JEST/Pleasant Remark of Akbar..!!
}



=> At last that crooked-minded one(Sakat Singh), from want of understand­ing and from taking a jest seriously, ran away. In his folly he ran away from apparent dishonour, and fell into real dis­grace. For the ignorant fellow imagined that His Majesty was meditating the punishment of Rana under the pretence of hunting, and that he himself would get a bad name to the effect that he had gone and brought H.M. against his father. He did not know that it was all a joke, and that there was no reason why this powerful and God-restrained one should personally proceed against such a class of landholders. Nor did he perceive that, on the supposition that his notion was correct, his running away from such a good fortune was to throw himself into the lowest hell of destruction and to hurry from disrepute to misconduct.

{
 Abu'l Fazl says that it was a JEST Remark/JOKE of Akbar that he wanted to attack and punish Rana Udai Singh for NOT accepting Mughal suzerainty, BUT Sakat Singh took it to be TRUTH and left the place..Abu'l Fazl says that there was NO REASON TO ATTACK CHITTOR , and hence Sakat Singh was "MistakeN" in leaving the Mughal Camp..  
}


=> When the news of his flight reached the royal hearing, the Shahinshah's wrath was stirred up, and jest became earnest. And in truth this was proper, for, from the time of the accession, most of the leading men of India who had cocked the hat of pride and had not lowered the head of obedience before any of the Sultans, had bowed down and kissed the ground, except Rana Udai Singh, than whom there was in this country no one more foolish and arrogant.
{
This Looks like a excuse for attack on Chittor. Infact, there is NO requirement for Abu'l Fazl to give an "explanation" for attack.!!!. Initially, it was written that, there was NO reason to attack Chittor, though according to Fazl, Akbar expressed his wish to Sakat Singh to PUNISH Rana Udai Singh for NOT submitting to him, but he called it a JOKE.!!!!!. 
And now, here the same reason is given by Abu'l Fazl > "Since, except Rana Udai Singh, all those who had never come under the Sultans earlier, also submitted to Akbar, hence Akbar also wanted Rana Udai to follow those rulers, and submit to him." Rana Udai Singh is called arrogant, as he was NOT ready to accept Mughal Suzerainty.
}


=> This audacious and immoderate one, in whom the turbulence of ancestors was added to his own haughtiness, was proud of his steep mountains and strong castles and turned away the head of obedience from the sublime court. His brain was heated by the consciousness of his possessing abundant land and wealth, and numbers of devoted Rajputs, and so he left the path of auspiciousness. His Majesty's world-conquering genius decided to chastise him. About 19 September 1567, the expedition took place and he set off towards conquering the terri­tory.
{
The attack on Chittor was to humble the pride of Rana Udai Singh. This was natural, as Chittor was the major kingdom which could boast of enjoying total freedom in the entire Rajputana. It was seen as a symbol of Rajput Chivalry. The Royal House of Mewar was ranked amongst the highest in all the Rajputs. Hence, subduing the Ranas of Mewar literally meant taking control of the Rajputana spirit of resistance.. 
}
""
 
Fort of Chittor on a Hill - Aerial View


II. The explanation in Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh: By Mulla Abu'l Qa'adir Badayuni. 

Badayuni has also explained the event in his account. He has NOT narrated any "STORY" like Abu'l Fazl to ' explain ' the Chittor War. But according to him, Akbar had PRE-decided to take Chittor and marched with proper plans. I have taken the following lines from - "The Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Badayuni, Vol.-2, Page-102(Ranking, Haig, Lowe, Calcutta,1925)"..

Following is the Text from Munthakhab-ut-Tawarikh-> {I have explained the text in between, and given my explanations in purple color.}

""
=>  And in this year the intention was formed of reducing the fortress of Chittor. Accordingly the Emperor took away Bayana from Ḥaji Muhammad Khan Sistani, and gave it as jagir to Asaf Khan; and Basawar and Wazirpur, Mandalgaṛh he also gave to him, on the understanding that he should proceed thither, and collect provisions and materials for the army. 
{
Here, Badayuni tells us that the intention of attacking Chittor was PRE-meditated, and he marched from Agra with the same ambition. For this process, he deputed one of his favorite generals, Asaf Khan, and handed him various jagirs, and tasked him to collect army from these provinces. He has NOT narrated any story like Abu'l Fazl to explain the attack on Chittor.
}
""




III. The explanation in Tabaqat-e-Akbari: By Nizam-ud-din Bakshi. 

Nizam has also explained the event in his account. EVEN, he has NOT narrated any "STORY" like Abu'l Fazl to ' explain ' the Chittor War. According to him,TOO, Akbar had PRE-decided to take Chittor and marched with proper plans. I have taken the following lines from - "The Tabaqat-e-Akbari of Nizam-ud-din Bakshi (excerpt from KCB,John, Vol.-5, Page-324/325, London, 1873)"..

Following is the Text from Tabaqat-e-Akbari-> {I have explained the text in between, and given my explanations in purple color.}

""
=>  Many zamindars and rajas of Hindustan had become subjects of the Imperial throne. But Rana Udai Singh, Raja of Mewar, confident in the strength of his fortresses, and the number of his men and elephants, had thrown off his allegiance. Now that the Emperor had returned to the capital, with his mind at rest in respect of Ali Kuli Khan and other rebels, he turned his attention towards the capture of Chitor. He accordingly began to make preparations for the campaign. The pargana of Bayana was taken from Haji Muhammad Khan Sistani, and given in jagir to Asaf Khan, who was ordered to proceed thither, and collect provisions and materials for the army. The Emperor followed to the town of Bari, with the avowed intention of hunting, and there killed a thousand animals in sport. Then he ordered his army to be brought up, and proceeded onwards.
{
Here, Nizam also tells us that the intention of attacking Chittor was PRE-meditated, after Akbar was free from the revolt of Ali Kuli Khan in Jaunpur area, and he marched from Agra with the same ambition. For this process, he deputed one of his favorite generals, Asaf Khan, and handed him various jagirs, and tasked him to collect army from these provinces. He has ALSO NOT narrated any story like Abu'l Fazl to explain the attack on Chittor. Further, Nizam makes it CLEAR that Akbar marched from capital announcing "hunting" as the reason.
}
""



Assessment:

Chittor was a symbol of Rajputana resistance. Without capturing Chittor, it was not possible to become undisputed master of North Hindustan. The Freedom of Chittor was a hindrance in this regard. Many smaller principalities marched behind Chittor. Hence, reducing this capital was a necessity. Moreover, the pride which rulers of Chittor took in their freedom and their ancestry was like a thorn in the flesh for Akbar. This fact has been clearly mentioned in Akbarnama and Tabaqat-e-Akbari. 

Another fact is that, Economy drives the Empire. The access to the ports of Gujarat was very easy through the territory of Chittor. Due to these reasons also, Chittor was very important for Akbar. The fortress of Chittor was strategically very important, owing to it's location on steep hill.


One reason, which is NORMALLY heard for attack on Chittor is that > The Rana of Chittor had given sanctuary to a runaway Mughal Vassal, which is not a "reason" to attack Chittor. NO-where in ANY of the texts of Akbar's court chroniclers , this reason is mentioned.  

The reason given MOST prominently in all texts from Mughal Court(as i mentioned above) was to reduce the Pride of Rana which he took in his "warriors and his ancestry". Basically, it was a WAR for One's Supremacy. The Rana wanted to remain independent BUT Akbar wanted to bring him under control. Though, Chittor was captured, but the Rana did not become a Mughal Vassal..


I am looking forward to reading your views on this topic...This series would be continued further. This post is ONLY to lay emphasis on the reasons for attack on Chittor, in response to many questions by the readers.

This post has been posted under the Rajputs and Mughals(Akbar) section of history_geek's BLOG.



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51 comments:

  1. history-geek,thank u for making this post for me.i always wondered about on the reasons.now this post is a mirror.abul fazl has flattered akbar.i feel he has given justification for the attack, in precedence to the massacre akbar ordered in chittor.but he is unable to cover this deed.badayuni and nizam have written with open pen.waiting for more.i keep stalking ur blog.i will not disturb soon.thank u from my heart.i am reading military magazine of world wars.this post has surpassed that manual.awesome job.so much detailed.u have a way with words.u know how readers understand.claps for u.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Abu'l Fazl has always written in a calculated manner when it comes to Akbar. This is a universal fact. If your friend is writing for you, then he will surely use the best possible literary words available to justify your actions. :)

      I was not impressed by the " STORY " that , since Sakat Singh left Akbar, hence he "decided" to attack Chittor.

      Due to the same reasons, i thought of writing from multiple Mughal Records, so that we can better understand this event. :)

      Delete
  2. Thanks Abhay for this valuable piece of information. I learned something new today.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Sindhu,
      You are also welcome to share your views.

      Delete
  3. Thanks Abhay.. So Akbar wanted to bring him under control.. I too read some whr that akbar was angry on sakat singh..but at the same time he wanted udai singh to bring under his control..so smart and teda emperor planned this war in the name of hunting...but udai singh went away from chittor to the hills of Udaipur. Jaimal and Patta, two brave army chieftains of Mewar, were left behind to defend the fort along with 8,000 Rajput warriors under their command..but wen the war was happeneing whr was pratapsingh and sakat singh..wat were they doing..they too were part of this war?? only thr army and commanders fought with mughal army and akbar..waiting to no more about this war and akbar and fight bet mp and akbar

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Gem,

      Your doubts will be cleared in subsequent posts. But, till then, i am answering in short.

      When Akbar was about to attack Chittor, a "War council" was called in Mewar comprising of various chiefs(called Samants) of Mewar , and it was decided that Udai Singh will not fight in war this time, and was ASKED to leave the palace forcibly.

      The decision of the War Council was binding on everyone, and was arrived at after long talks. Hence, Udai Singh took charge of West Mewar, and perhaps Maharana Pratap was at Kumbhalgarh. The fort was stocked with all the necessary essentials. The idea was to carry a CONTINUOUS struggle with the Mughals, which later became a part of the strategy of Maharana Pratap.

      BTW, It can a Teda/Smart Method for Akbar to proceed on this war, under the guise of hunting, though this gave Mewar "very less time for preparation" for the war. Akbar was already at Dholpur(in Rajputana) when Shakti(or Sakat) Singh came to know about this war.

      Also, there were NOT 2, but 2 more major leaders along with Jaimal and Patta in this war.Total 4.

      More details, "with references" will be given in subsequent posts.

      Delete
    2. Thanks Abhay.. was MUZ also with Akbar in this war

      Delete
    3. No Gem. She was not a part of this war.

      Delete
  4. Thanks for making this post. Will post my comments later.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Welcome Cleo. Looking forward to reading your inputs.

      Delete
  5. Abhay,

    Great post - balanced as usual and based on multiple sources :)

    It's esp gutsy to write about a sensitive event from our history, involving legendary personalities, without bias or fear. Well done!

    ReplyDelete
  6. Akbar was the one who consolidated the Mughal empire and extended it greatly in India.

    I have read that Akbar would move around with a large army, holding court in a splendid camp laid out like a capital city but composed entirely of tents. This was usually for political reasons and for subduing oppressors, as in Chittor's case, but carried out under the veil of indulging in hunting.

    Well, he did hunt a great deal (killing hundreds of poor animals like deer using trained cheetahs), while simultaneously pursuing his political agenda of warfare, treaties and marriages (political alliances).

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thanks Radhika, for your inputs.
    The topic needs to be dealt with quite carefully and hence i am posting with complete original references, as much as possible. :)

    ReplyDelete
  8. Congrats Abhay for ur new blig. Now we do not have to miss out on ur posts.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thank u Abhay fr this post. The way Abu'l Fazl is placing his arguements fr this war, shows 2 things.1. how he loves Akbar wants world to remember his good deeds.
    2.it seems Ab'ul Fazl himself is not comfortable narrating this war.He respects Rajput self respect,Asmita, but doesn't want to show this.
    Abhay, how many wars took place between Rana Pratap n Akbar?i think they were contemporary. Then why he is talking of Uday singh? Who is Sakst singh? was he younger bro of Pratap? Waiting for ur updates on this subject.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Personally, Akbar did not have to take to field against Chittor anytime. He had countless generals to fight for him. I will give the details of wars between them, soon. In case i forget, then remind me. :)

      Yes, MP and Akbar were contemporary. But, Udai Singh was the King till 1572, hence Abu'l Fazl is taking about him. Yes, Sakat(Shakti) Singh was younger bro of Maharana Pratap.

      Delete
    2. History-geek, I don't know the timeline but I think Bhaishakti died at a very young age, as shown in the serial MP.His other brother Jagmal also was accentric it seems. Pratap's bro-in-law Patta I think was a great warrior.
      I equally salute Rana pratap not only fr his strategies fr taking on Akbarn his army, but also fr his unbound patriotism. U can post, at liesure, Abhay, no problem. I will remind u in case of delay :)

      Delete
    3. Geeta,
      Has Shakti Singh died according to Maharana Pratap show.?. Can you plz elaborate on this issue.?.

      Delete
    4. Yes, most probably,though I don't watch it regularly, I remember MP holding Bhai Shakti's body n crying long back..He must be 10 yr old boy.That's why I asked u Sakat singh is the same person? That serial is killingly slow. Even a snail is better.I started watching it when Akbar came on board.I was really blown away by the child artists, Ajabdi, n Phul kunwer, whom I thought would be Jodha.Few weeks before also they showed MP getting depressed remembering Bhai Shakti.

      Delete
    5. Geeta,
      Read my latest post on Chittor. According to that, Shakti Singh was present in the battle of Chittor, hence he can not be dead. :)

      Link: > Preparation of Rajputs - Battle of Chittor | Marathon Series - Part-2

      Delete
  10. Abhay thanks for the update on Chittor war.. His strategy of going for hunting To cover the preparation of war is really brilliant...

    Waiting for other parts of the post.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Welcome Surochita.

      This move of Akbar, gave very less time to the Mewaris for preparation. See my reply to Gem, above.

      Though, this strategy was somewhat not in concurrence with war principles of Rajputs, as Before fighting wars on such a massive scale they USED to give an "Open call" to their enemy.

      Delete
  11. Okay... am a bit confused here Abhay. Maha Rana Pratap and Rana Uday Singh are son and father respectively... am i right..? I have read that Rana Pratap is from Mewar... then where did Chitor come from..aaahhhh me and my foolish questions..!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Viji,

      Mahrana Pratap was the son of Rana Udai Singh.

      Mewar was the name of their entire kingdom. And, Chittor was it's capital, a mini city in itself. Just Like, At present New Delhi is the capital of India and the Prime Minister lives there.

      The name of this Fort was Chittorgarh, and they ruled from this Fort. :)
      "Garh" means Fort. Meaning the Fort of Chittor.

      Delete
  12. ������ hehe ok ��

    ReplyDelete
  13. Thank you abhay for making this post ,I always knew since Akbar had almost all India under his control ,so he can't let go of rana udai Singh ,politically it creates more problem and gives other rajvanshi reason to keep on fighting so he has to eliminate that threat . And every thing else you included ,looking forward to all the parts

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Akbar didn't have south India under his control. The area upto the Vindhyas only came under his control. :)

      Delete
    2. Thanks for answering radhika.

      @pallavi..
      When Akbar attacked Rana Udai Singh, that time, he did not have entire India under his control, even at the end of his life, entire India was not in his control. Maximum extent of territorial expansion took place under Aurangzeb. :)

      About the reason of fighting this war. Wars can be justified but the massacre of the civilians at the end of war was indeed barbaric and beyond justification. :(

      Delete
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  16. Ahbay thanks for the info a good report based on 3 contemporary writers books. Would like to read more such reports on this war
    Akbar a good war strategist could win and occupy it despite the fort being very sturdy and strategically built on a hillock to withstand enemies and long siege.This war has raised many anti and pro sentiments in people's hearts as lot of cruelty on part of the mughals once they occupied it and blood shed on both sides. Akbar also never let it be rebuilt and it was left as it is the subsequent rulers also did not touch it.Is my news true

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sunram

      Nice to find you here..
      Yes, no doubt Akbar was a good strategist, and he one it, though there are many reasons for the same..The topic is very volatile. Will be adding more parts in this series slowly.. There we can discuss this topic in more details.. :)

      Delete
  17. I can see ambition, expansion plans, ego to thwart Rajput pride that was seamlessly upheld by an undeterred Rana Udai Singh as Akbar's reasons for this pre-meditated Chittor War......Don't know why I feel punishing Rana Udai Singh was not really a joke/jest as put forward or cleverly masked by Abul Fazl in Akbarnama but a hard hitting truth that resulted in this War and bloodshed and that marked a black chapter in Akbar's life......

    Thanks for sharing this valuable info Abhay....Waiting for your Part 2 on this series :)

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thank u Abhay..thanks a ton...so this is the reason to attack Chittor..no wonder it is called as big blot in Akbar's greatness..obviously Abu'l Fazl seems justifying the act which others dont and blatantly wrote what the thing was...the same way Ekta is justifying his actions in her own manner..she is going in daily soap way.
    waiting for ur series....

    again thanks. :-)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies

    1. Tamy and Pallavi..

      You both are spot on as far as this issue is concerned. Abu'l Fazl is trying to say the same thing as Badayuni and Nizamuddin, but after "masking" it , though the attempts are futile here. Clear reason was a fight for bending Udai Singh under himself..
      Will be posting more parts soon. :)

      Delete
  19. Abhay I have read somewhere that MUZ was really angry on Akbar after the war and after seeing so much of cruelty from his side.. Is it true???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Can you please tell detailed about it..

      Delete
    2. Surochita,

      I am not aware of the details, but only of the fact that MUZ and Akbar's mother were quite moved by this massacre, as this was really brutal even by those standards, and they were dead against Akbar for this genocide. I don't know how Akbar might have come to terms with them again.

      Delete
  20. Abhay, please give us part 2...want to know how was HK-Akbar relation that time...waiting!!!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Wow Abhay! I did not realize that records exist of MUZ reactions to Chittore! Also the post war Farman sounds fascinating. Can't wait for your part 2 as it seems that Chittore was even more gruesome than I thought. Thanks for your reply to my post on IF. Did not realize I could not talk of history in that thread....I was just appalled at how people were justifying akbar for Chittore and felt I had to say something. I do have another question...Someone said on IF that the gujrat campaign was as brutal but we only like to talk about the Chittore one because in the gujrat faught fellow muslims as so we don't care. I was very surprised at her accusations and more so is it really true that the gujrat campaign was as brutal as Chittore?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies

    1. @Tamy and Coolpree..
      Will be posting part-2 soon.

      @Coolpree
      Gujarat was NO WAY even close to Chittor in terms of brutality and in Gujarat, Hindus also suffered along with Muslims. Chittor is rated amongst worst genocides in history..!!!

      The accusations hold no ground. As you say it was, IF has a strange phenomena of justifying Akbar and demeaning MUZ, on almost everything. I did not want to get into historical discussions there, hence did not reply to this point..

      After finishing, Chittor series, i will post brief info on Gujarat campaign also..

      Delete
  22. Abhay, Akbar had always been quite tolerant and did not resort to killing civilains unabashedly, then how come he was so brutal this war? Why kill people who were never part of the whole war scene?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies

    1. Aadhya,

      This war was different from ALL the wars Akbar fought in his life. There can be many reasons for this brutality -

      1. The war was a long one, no one before Chittor and no one After Chittor, could resist Akbar's attack for so long. His patience was turning into anger..

      2. Akbar lost many of his men in this war, and was keen on REVENGE for this. It was first time that Akbar met a formidable foe.

      3. Lastly, Akbar declared this war as a "Holy War" , hence after winning it, according me, he was bound to eliminate the civilians..

      4. Akbar was tolerant, but this was a slow change. He had his gray spots, and Chittor was a black one.

      5. This was an attempt to finish the power of Sisodias, as there were "personal reasons" involved in this war. It was a fight for one's supremacy. "Either it is you, or it is me" . Akbar wanted Udai Singh to submit to him, and the latter was not ready to submit personally to him.

      There is perhaps not a single reason for this brutality. : (

      Delete
  23. Abhay,thank you for the excellent research and information on the Chittor war.

    So,basically Akbar fought this war with the unrelenting Rajput king Rana Uday Singh, on the pretext of hunting, only to derail his Rajput pride and bring him under his control.

    In the process, thousands of innocent lives were lost,and this war is recorded in history as the bloodiest and goriest act under the leadership of Akbar.

    My question for you is, did this war have an impact on the relationship between MUZ and Akbar?What kind of emotional impact did the aftermath of the war have on Akbar as an individual?


    Charu.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Charu,

      You are right in understanding the reasons..The war was fought more for personal reasons. It was not only a political scene, but ran much deep.

      About Akbar's relations with MUZ, i have replied above^^^ to many members. Please see it. :)

      A new post has been made in Chittor Series. Do check it out.

      Link: > Preparation of Rajputs - Battle of Chittor | Marathon Series - Part-2

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  24. Hi Geeta and Abhay,

    I was reading comments when I came across this one about Shakti Singh. I have watched MRP on and off - had watched the episodes Geeta mentioned. They had showed Rana Uday Singh
    ordering Shakti Singh's death but MRP saves him just in time and Rawat-ji helps MRP in explaining the reasons for Shakti Singh to kill the man in jail. Since the relations between Rana Uday Singh and Shakti Singh were greatly harmed by this gesture - Rawat-ji offers to take Shakti Singh under his own care and he goes with him to his home/ancestral town. After this they have not shown Shakti Singh in serial in the parts I have watched.

    Abhay - In MRP they had shown a younger brother of Shakti Singh also - I forgot the queen's name now - she is shown very affectionate with MRP and against Bhatiyani. She was shown leaving Rana Uday Singh after Shakti Singh left and with
    her young son went to her parent's home. Later briefly they showed she had returned but never showed her younger son again.

    What was the name of this younger brother of Shakti Singh and was he with Shakti Singh or MRP? Is this true character or one of NR!!!

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  25. Abhay, wonderful post. I am very curious why some of these accounts try to give justifications/reasons for the Chittor war? After all Akbar was always trying to spread his empire and he was after what is today's Rajasthan from early years. So why not simply say this was part of expansion?

    To me this indicates the butchering of civilians in this war might have caused great blot to Akbar's name - in those times. Maybe this was a damage control exercise to white wash Akbar's name.

    My heart just goes out to those innocent civilians and salute to the bravery of Chittor-wasis.

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  26. Hi Medha,

    There is no account which gives justification for Chittor war. And the ones who mention that there are justifications for this war, are trying a futile attempt to prove the same. This war was for many reasons other than expansion of empire. You have read by now that the war was a means to BEND Udai Singh infront of him.

    No one could defy Akbar's call, and when Udai Singh defied then it was not acceptable to Akbar.

    It should be agreed that even a person called GREAT can have BLACK spots on him. The case is same here. :)

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  27. Medha,

    You are recalling the correct incident . Shakti Singh was saved and he lived with Rawat ji after this. I stopped wathcing after those episodes.

    About the questions, Yes Shakti Singh had a younger brother. His name was Kunwar Vikram. The name of their mother was, Rani Sajjabai Ji. She was from Solanki clan of Rajputs.

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